Around 2000 BC, the Ljubljana Marshes in the immediate vicinity of Ljubljana were settled by people living in pile dwellings.
The area surrounding today's castle has been continuously inhabited since 1200 BC.
300 BC, 201 BC
Later, the area remained a transit point for numerous tribes and peoples, among them the Illyrians, followed by a mixed nation of the Celts and the Illyrians called the Iapydes, and then in the 3rd century BC a Celtic tribe, the Taurisci.
Ljubljana is located some 320 kilometers (200 mi) south of Munich, 477 kilometers (296 mi) east of Zürich, 250 kilometers (160 mi) east of Venice, 350 kilometers (220 mi) southwest of Vienna, 224 kilometers (139 mi) south of Salzburg and 400 kilometers (250 mi) southwest of Budapest.
In the 6th century, the ancestors of the Slovenes moved in.
The highest point of the city, called Grmada, reaches 676 meters (2,218 ft), three m (9.8 ft) more than the nearby Mount Saint Mary (Šmarna gora) peak, a popular hiking destination.
Ljubljana in years
In the 9th century, they fell under Frankish domination, while experiencing frequent Magyar raids.
Ljubljana has an elevation of 295 meters (968 ft) The city centre, located along the Ljubljanica River, has an elevation of 298 meters (978 ft).
Ljubljana itself was first mentioned in the first half of the 12th century.
Originally owned by a number of possessors, until the first half of the 12th century, the territory south of the Sava where the town of Ljubljana developed gradually became property of the Carinthian family of the Dukes of Sponheim.
Urban settlement in Ljubljana started in the second half of the 12th century.
Ljubljana in decades
The castle was built in the 12th century and was a residence of the Margraves, later the Dukes of Carniola.
According to the historian Peter Štih's deduction, this happened between 1112 and 1125, thus representing the earliest mention of Ljubljana.
The parchment sheet Nomina defunctorum ("Names of the Dead"), most probably written in the second half of 1161, mentions the nobleman Rudolf of Tarcento, a lawyer of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, who had bestowed a canon with 20 farmsteads beside the castle of Ljubljana (castrum Leibach) to the Patriarchate.
At around 1200, market rights were granted to Old Square (Stari trg), which at the time was one of the three districts that Ljubljana originated from.
Historically the first school in Ljubljana belonged to Teutonic Knights and was established in the 13th century.
Ljubljana in centuries
Parochial schools are attested in the 13th century, at St.
Ljubljana acquired the town privileges at some time between 1220 and 1243.
In the late 1270, Ljubljana was conquered by King Ottokar II of Bohemia.
In 1278, after Ottokar's defeat, it became—together with the rest of Carniola—property of Rudolph of Habsburg.
It was administered by the Counts of Gorizia from 1279 until 1335, when it became the capital town of Carniola.
Since 1291, there were also trade-oriented private schools in Ljubljana.
In 1327, the Ljubljana's "Jewish Quarter"—now only "Jewish Street" (Židovska ulica) remains—was established with a synagogue, and lasted until Emperor Maximilian I in 1515 succumbed to medieval antisemitism and expelled Jews from Ljubljana, for which he demanded a certain payment from the town.
In 1382, in front of St.
It is historically more believable that the dragon was adopted from Saint George, the patron of the Ljubljana Castle chapel built in the 15th century.
In the 15th century, Ljubljana became recognised for its art, particularly painting and sculpture.
View on Ljubljana from Neboti%C4%8Dnik Tower %2838458386985%29
The river transport on the Ljubljanica and the Sava was the main means of cargo transport to and from the city until the mid-19th century, when railroads were built.
In 1805, the first state music school was established in Ljubljana.
From 1809 to 1813, during the Napoleonic interlude, Ljubljana (under the name Laybach) was the capital of the Illyrian Provinces.
It started operating under the leadership of Franc Hladnik in 1810.
Historically, higher schools offering the study of general medicine, surgery, architecture, law and theology, started to operate in Ljubljana during the French occupation of the Slovene Lands, in 1810–11.
The castle's Viewing Tower dates to 1848; this was inhabited by a guard whose duty it was to fire cannons warning the city in case of fire or announcing important visitors or events, a function the castle still holds today.
The first train arrived in 1849 from Vienna and in 1857 the line was extended to Trieste.
The first sport club in Ljubljana was the South Sokol Gymnastic Club (Gimnastično društvo Južni Sokol), established in 1863 and succeeded in 1868 by the Ljubljana Sokol (Ljubljanski Sokol).
The Hradecky Bridge was manufactured according to the plans of the senior engineer Johann Hermann from Vienna in the Auersperg iron foundry in Dvor near Žužemberk, and installed in Ljubljana in 1867, at the location of today's Cobblers' Bridge.
Theatre has a rich tradition in Ljubljana, starting with the 1867 first ever Slovene-language drama performance.
The first public schools, unrelated to religious education, appeared in 1868.
In 1869, Ljubljana had about 22,600 inhabitants, a figure that grew to almost 60,000 by 1931.
Metelkova and RogA Ljubljana equivalent of the Copenhagen's Freetown Christiania, a self-proclaimed autonomous Metelkova neighbourhood, was set up in a former Austro-Hungarian barracks that were built in 1882 (completed in 1911).
In 1885, German residents established the first sports club in the territory of nowadays Slovenia, Der Laibacher Byciklistischer Club (Ljubljana Cycling Club).
After the 1895 earthquake, Max Fabiani designed the square as the hub of four streets and four banks, and in the 1980s, Edvard Ravnikar proposed the circular design and the granite block pavement.
It was planned already in 1895 by Maks Fabiani to build a bridge on the location, in 1913 Alfred Keller planned a staircase, later Jože Plečnik incorporated both into his own plans which, however, were not realised.
The rebuilding period between 1896 and 1910 is referred to as the "revival of Ljubljana" because of architectural changes from which a great deal of the city dates back to today and for reform of urban administration, health, education and tourism that followed.
Public electric lighting appeared in the city in 1898.
It was designed in the second half of the 20th century by Edvard Ravnikar.
The 1901 Dragon Bridge, decorated with the Dragon statues on pedestals at four corners of the bridge has become a symbol of the city and is regarded as one of the most beautiful examples of a bridge made in Vienna Secession style.
1901, 1928, 1931, 1940, 1959
Historical Ljubljana tram system was completed in 1901 and was replaced by buses in 1928, which were in turn abolished and replaced by trams in 1931 in its final length of 18.5 kilometers (11.5 mi) in 1940, In 1959, it was abolished in favor of automobiles; the tracks were dismantled and tram cars were transferred to Osijek and Subotica.
From the beginning, the seat of the university has been at Congress Square in a building that served as the State Mansion of Carniola from 1902 to 1918.
The Prešeren Monument was created by Ivan Zajec in 1905, whereas the pedestal was designed by Max Fabiani.
In 1906, Slovenes organised themselves in its Slovene counterpart, the Ljubljana Sports Club (Ljubljanski športni klub).
Fuente de la Plaza Nueva%2C Liubliana%2C Eslovenia%2C 2017-04-14%2C DD 44-46 HDR
In 1910, there were 29 secondary schools in Ljubljana, among them classical and real gymnasiums and Realschules (technical secondary schools).
In 1911, the first Slovene football club, Ilirija, started operating in the city.
It was under Habsburg rule from the Middle Ages until the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918.
This name was in official use as an endonym until 1918, and it remains frequent as a German exonym, both in common speech and official use. The city is alternatively named Lublana in many English language documents.
In 1918, following the end of World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the region joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The National Gallery (Narodna galerija), founded in 1918, and the Museum of Modern Art (Moderna galerija) exhibit the most influential Slovenian artists.
There was a military airport in Šiška from 1918 until 1929.
Austro-Hungarian Empire never allowed Slovenes to establish their own university in Ljubljana and the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia's most important university, was founded in 1919 after Slovenes joined the first Yugoslavia.
1921, 1929, 1939
Between 1921 and 1939, it was renovated by the Slovene architect Jože Plečnik, who unveiled his statue of Napoleon in 1929 in Republic Square and designed a broad central promenade, called the Jakopič Promenade (Jakopičevo sprehajališče) after the leading Slovene impressionist painter Rihard Jakopič.
In 1929, Ljubljana became the capital of the Drava Banovina, a Yugoslav province.
In 1929, the first ice hockey club in Slovenia (then Yugoslavia) SK Ilirija was established.
An outdoor swimming pool in Tivoli, constructed by Bloudek in 1929, was the first Olympic-size swimming pool in Yugoslavia.
The 1930 ‘Cobblers’ Bridge’ (Šuštarski, from German Schuster – Shoemaker) is another Plečnik's creation, connecting two major areas of medieval Ljubljana.
Since the 1930s when in Ljubljana was founded a Mary Wigman dance school, the first one for modern dance in Slovenia, the field has been intimately linked to the development in Europe and the United States.
At the northern end of Tivoli Park stands the Ilirija Swimming Pool Complex, which was built as part of a swimming and athletics venue following plans by Bloudek in the 1930s and has been nearly abandoned since then, but there are plans to renovate it.
21 February 1933, July 1930
Construction began in July 1930 and the building opened on 21 February 1933.
This airport has superseded the original Ljubljana airport, in operation from 1933 until 1963.
The next academy in Ljubljana, the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, was not established until 1938.
Since the 1940s, a ski slope has been in use in Gunclje, in the northwestern part of the city.
In 1941, during World War II, Fascist Italy occupied the city, and on 3 May 1941 made Lubiana the capital of Italy's Province of Ljubljana with the former Yugoslav general Leon Rupnik as mayor.
Since February 1942, the city was surrounded by barbed wire, later fortified by bunkers, to prevent co-operation between the resistance movement that operated within and outside the fence.
9 May 1945, 1943
After the Italian capitulation, Nazi Germany with SS-general Erwin Rösener and Friedrich Rainer took control in 1943, but formally the city remained the capital of an Italian province until 9 May 1945.
9 May 1945
Each year since 1957, on 8–10 May, the traditional recreational Walk Along the Wire has taken place to mark the liberation of Ljubljana on 9 May 1945.
The Ljubljana Festival is one of the two oldest festivals in former Yugoslavia (the Dubrovnik Summer Festival was established in 1950, and the Ljubljana Festival one in 1953).
Sometimes the buses are called trole (referring to trolley poles), harking back to the 1951–71 days when Ljubljana had trolleybus (trolejbus) service.
A ski jumping hill, build in 1954 upon the plans by Stanko Bloudek, was located in Šiška near Vodnik Street (Vodnikova cesta) until 1976.
The Tacen Whitewater Course, located on a course on the Sava, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the city centre, hosts a major international canoe/kayak slalom competition almost every year, examples being the ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships in 1955, 1991, and 2010.
There were five trolleybus lines in Ljubljana, until 1958 alongside the tram.
In the early 1960s, it was succeeded by the Ljubljana City Art Gallery, which has presented a number of modern Slovene and foreign artists.
A number of cinema festivals took place in the 1960s, and a cinematheque opened its doors in 1963.
In the 1980s with the emergence of subcultures in Ljubljana, an alternative culture begun to develop in Ljubljana organised around two student organisations.
Since 1985, the a commemorative trail has ringed the city where this iron fence once stood.
Since 1986, Ljubljana is part of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network.
Since then it became an important centre for political ceremonies, demonstrations and protests, such as the ceremony at creation of Kingdom of Yugoslavia, ceremony of liberation of Belgrade, protests against Yugoslav authority in 1988 etc.
Love padlocks on the Butchers%27 Bridge %28Ljubljana%29
In 1993, the seven buildings and 12,500 m2 of space were turned into art galleries, artist studios, and seven nightclubs, including two LGBTQ+ venues, playing host to all range of music from hardcore to jazz to dub to techno.
Ljudmila (since 1994) strives to connect research practices, technologies, science, and art.
Reintroduction of an actual tram system to Ljubljana has been proposed repeatedly in the 2000s.
Between 2002 and 2006, Danica Simšič was mayor of the municipality.
At the 2002 census, 39% of Ljubljana inhabitants were Catholic; 30% had no religion, an unknown religion or did not reply; 19% atheist; 6% Eastern Orthodox; 5% Muslim; and the remaining 0.7% Protestant or another religion.
At the end of 2006, the Ljubljana Castle funicular started to operate.
22 October 2006, December 2011
Since the municipal elections of 22 October 2006 until his confirmation as a deputy in the National Assembly of Slovenian in December 2011, Zoran Janković, previously the managing director of the Mercator retail chain, was the mayor of Ljubljana.
From 2006 until October 2010, the majority on the city council (the Zoran Janković List) held 23 of 45 seats.
The origin from the Slavic ljub- "to love, like" was in 2007 supported as the most probable by the linguist Tijmen Pronk, a specialist in comparative Indo-European linguistics and Slovene dialectology, from the University of Leiden.
In 2011, the University had 23 faculties and three academies, located in different parts of Ljubljana.
In 2011, it held about 1,307,000 books, 8,700 manuscripts, and numerous other textual, visual and multimedia resources, altogether 2,657,000 volumes.
In 2011, it held 1,657,000 volumes, among these 1,432,000 books and a multitude of other resources in 36 branches.
Since May 2011, the BicikeLJ, a self-service bicycle rental system offers the residents and visitors of Ljubljana 510 bicycles and more than 600 parking spots at 51 stations in the wider city centre area.
Their archaeological remains, nowadays in the Municipality of Ig, have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site since June 2011, in the common nomination of six Alpine states.
From December 2011 onwards, when Janković's list won the early parliamentary election, the deputy mayor Aleš Čerin was decided by him to lead the municipality.
25 March 2012
After Janković had failed to be elected as the Prime Minister in the National Assembly, he participated at the mayoral by-election on 25 March 2012 and was elected for the third time with 61% of the vote.
11 April 2012
He retook the leadership of the city council on 11 April 2012.
In 2014, Ljubljana won the European Green Capital Award for 2016 for its environmental achievements.
Nevertheless, the situation has been steadily improving; in 2015, Ljubljana placed 13th in a ranking of the world's most bicycle-friendly cities.
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