Polynesians speak languages that descend from a language reconstructed as Proto-Polynesian that was probably spoken in the area around Tonga and Samoa in around 1000 BCE.
27 April 1931
The warmest temperature recorded in the state, in Pahala on April 27, 1931, is 100 °F (38 °C), making it tied with Alaska as the lowest record high temperature observed in a U. S. state.
15 June 1898, 6 July 1898
The Newlands Resolution was passed by the House on June 15, 1898, by 209 votes in favor to 91 against, and by the Senate on July 6, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21.
Based on archaeological evidence, the earliest habitation of the Hawaiian Islands dates to around 300 CE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas Islands.
According to Schütz, the Marquesans colonized the Archipelago in roughly 300 CE and were later followed by waves of seafarers from the Society Islands, Samoa and Tonga.
=== First human settlement – Ancient Hawaiʻi (800–1778) ===
Hawaii in years
A second wave of migration from Raiatea and Bora Bora took place in the 11th century.
Some archaeologists and historians think it was a later wave of immigrants from Tahiti around 1000 CE who introduced a new line of high chiefs, the kapu system, the practice of human sacrifice, and the building of heiau.
Prior to the 15th century, Polynesian people migrated east to the Cook Islands, and from there to other Island groups such as Tahiti and the Marquesas.
1500, 1599, 1778
It is possible that Spanish explorers arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the 16th century—200 years before Captain James Cook's first documented visit in 1778.
Ruy López de Villalobos commanded a fleet of six ships that left Acapulco in 1542 bound for the Philippines with a Spanish sailor named Juan Gaetano aboard as pilot.
Hawaii in decades
The last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred at Haleakalā on Maui before the late 18th century, possibly hundreds of years earlier.
1700, 1778, 1789, 1799
Historical records indicated the earliest Chinese immigrants to Hawaii originated from Guangdong Province; a few sailors arrived in 1778 with Captain Cook's journey and more arrived in 1789 with an American trader, who settled in Hawaii in the late 18th century.
1770, 1779, 1850, 1859, 1920
The indigenous Hawaiian Population succumbed to foreign diseases, declining from 300,000 in the 1770s, to 60,000 in the 1850s, to 24,000 in 1920.
The 1778 arrival of British explorer James Cook was the first documented contact by a European explorer with Hawaii.
As he prepared for departure after his second visit in 1779, a quarrel ensued as Cook took temple idols and fencing as "firewood", and a minor chief and his men took a ship's boat.
Hawaii in centuries
However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, and in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was later admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas.
1780, 1789, 1790, 1799
During the 1780s, and 1790s, chiefs often fought for power.
S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789.
Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii starting in 1789.
In 1790, Kīlauea exploded; it was the deadliest eruption known to have occurred in the modern era in what is now the United States.
S. states—apart from the original thirteen, along with the Vermont Republic (1791), the Republic of Texas (1845), and the California Republic (1846)—that were independent nations prior to statehood.
After a series of battles that ended in 1795, all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler, who became known as King Kamehameha the Great.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is strongly influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture.
The population of Hawaii began to finally increase after an influx of primarily Asian settlers that arrived as migrant laborers at the end of the 19th century.
Many are descendants of immigrants brought to work on the sugarcane plantations in the mid-to-late 19th century.
Hawai'i Sign Language, a sign language for the deaf based on the Hawaiian language, has been in use in the islands since the early 1800s.
During the 19th century, the increase in immigration—mainly from China, Japan, Portugal—especially from the Azores and Madeira, and Spain—catalyzed the development of a hybrid variant of English known to its speakers as pidgin.
It is associated with the Hawaiian religion, which was officially suppressed in the 19th century but was kept alive by some practitioners to the modern day.
Since the late 19th century, Hawaii has become a major site for surfists from around the world.
Political organizations seeking some form of Sovereignty for Hawaii have been active since the late 19th century.
It is said that leprosy was introduced by Chinese workers by 1830; as with the other new infectious diseases, it proved damaging to the Hawaiians.
In modern practice, vowel length is indicated with a macron (kahakō). Hawaiian-language newspapers (nūpepa) published from 1834 to 1948 and traditional native speakers of Hawaiian generally omit the marks in their own writing.
During the reign of King Kamehameha III, Hawai'i turned into a Christian monarchy with the signing of the 1840 Constitution.
During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii's people.
1866, 1900, 1999
Missionaries from each major group administered to the leper colony at Kalaupapa on Molokaʻi, which was established in 1866 and operated well into the 20th century.
On the flanks of the volcanoes, slope instability has generated damaging earthquakes and related tsunamis, particularly in 1868 and 1975. Steep cliffs have been created by catastrophic debris avalanches on the submerged flanks of ocean island volcanoes.
19 June 1868
The first 153 Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii on June 19, 1868.
He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled the kingdom until 1872.
In 1874, the election was contested within the legislature between Kalākaua and Emma, Queen Consort of Kamehameha IV.
6 February 1874, 12 February 1874
King Kalākaua was chosen as monarch by the Legislative Assembly by a vote of 39 to 6 on February 12, 1874.
=== Overthrow of 1893 – Republic of Hawaii (1894–1898) ===
Partisans on both sides of the debate questioned the accuracy and impartiality of both the Blount and Morgan reports over the events of 1893.
The Hawaiian sovereignty movement views the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893 as illegal, and views the subsequent annexation of Hawaii by the United States as illegal; the movement seeks some form of greater autonomy for Hawaii, such as free association or independence from the United States.
Some groups also advocate some form of redress from the United States for the 1893 overthrow of Queen Liliʻuokalani, and for what is described as a prolonged military occupation beginning with the 1898 annexation.
14 January 1893
On January 14, 1893, a group of mostly Euro-American business leaders and residents formed the Committee of Safety to stage a coup d'état against the kingdom and seek annexation by the United States. S. Marines.
On January 17, 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani was overthrown and replaced by a provisional government composed of members of the Committee of Safety.
17 January 1893
The resolution apologized and said that the overthrow was illegal in the following phrase: "The Congress — on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893, acknowledges the historical significance of this event which resulted in the suppression of the inherent sovereignty of the Native Hawaiian people." The Apology Resolution also "acknowledges that the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii occurred with the active participation of agents and citizens of the United States and further acknowledges that the Native Hawaiian people never directly relinquished to the United States their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people over their national lands, either through the Kingdom of Hawaii or through a plebiscite or referendum".
26 February 1894
Congress conducted an independent investigation, and on February 26, 1894, submitted the Morgan Report, which found all parties, including Minister Stevens—with the exception of the Queen—"not guilty" and not responsible for the coup.
4 July 1894
Dole, a citizen of Hawaii, became President of the Republic when the Provisional Government of Hawaii ended on July 4, 1894. The U.
12 August 1894
Hawaii was an independent republic from 1894 until August 12, 1898, when it officially became a territory of the United States.
NORTHEAST FACADE - Iolani Palace%2C King and Richards Streets%2C Honolulu%2C Honolulu County%2C HI HABS HI%2C2-HONLU%2C8-7.tif
21 August 1959
Hawaii ( (listen) hə-WY-ee; Hawaiian: Hawaiʻi [həˈvɐjʔi]) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
21 August 1959
S. state on August 21, 1959.
Since gaining statehood and participating in its first election in 1960, Hawaii has supported Democrats in all but two presidential elections; 1972 and 1984, both of which were landslide reelection victories for Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan respectively. S.
1961, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1987
Notable professional teams include The Hawaiians, which played at the World Football League in 1974 and 1975; the Hawaii Islanders, a Triple-A minor league baseball team that played at the Pacific Coast League from 1961 to 1987; and Team Hawaii, a North American Soccer League team that played in 1977.
In 1964, favorite son candidate senator Hiram Fong of Hawaii sought the Republican presidential nomination, while Patsy Mink ran in the Oregon primary in 1972.
Hawaii has hosted the Sony Open in Hawaii golf tournament since 1965, the Tournament of Champions golf tournament since 1999, the Lotte Championship golf tournament since 2012, the Honolulu Marathon since 1973, the Ironman World Championship triathlon race since 1978, the Ultraman triathlon since 1983, the National Football League's Pro Bowl from 1980 to 2016, the 2000 FINA World Open Water Swimming Championships, and the 2008 Pan-Pacific Championship and 2012 Hawaiian Islands Invitational soccer tournaments.
In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Hawaii's population was 38.8% white and 57.7% Asian and Pacific Islander.
Navy and operated until 1970.
Senate since Hiram Fong in 1970; since 1977, both of the state's U. S.
Generally, their focus is on self-determination and self-governance, either for Hawaii as an independent nation (in many proposals, for "Hawaiian nationals" descended from subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom or declaring themselves as such by choice), or for people of whole or part native Hawaiian ancestry in an indigenous "nation to nation" relationship akin to tribal sovereignty with US federal recognition of Native Hawaiians. In the 2000s, it was found that the large majority of Hawaiian residents opposed the Akaka Bill.
The state's gross output for 2003 was US$47 billion; per capita income for Hawaii residents in 2014 was US$54,516. S.
In 2003, according to state government data, there were over 6.4 million visitors, with expenditures of over $10 billion, to the Hawaiian Islands.
S. and first such school in Hawaii, was founded in 2003.
In 2004, John Kerry won the state's four electoral votes by a margin of nine percentage points with 54% of the vote.
The ACT college placement tests show that in 2005, seniors scored slightly above the national average (21.9 compared with 20.9), but in the widely accepted SAT examinations, Hawaii's college-bound seniors tend to score below the national average in all categories except mathematics.
S. that openly grant admission to students based on ancestry; collectively, they are one of the wealthiest schools in the United States, if not the world, having over eleven billion US dollars in estate assets. In 2005, Kamehameha enrolled 5,398 students, 8.4% of the Native Hawaiian children in the state.
According to the United States Census, there were over 24,000 total speakers of the language in Hawaii in 2006–2008.
As of 2006, there were a total of eleven Pūnana Leo preschools, with locations on five of the islands.
Portuguese immigrant family in Hawaii during the 19th century
15 June 2006
Bush on June 15, 2006.
December 2007, March 2009
The Hawaii Superferry operated between Oʻahu and Maui between December 2007 and March 2009, with additional routes planned for other islands.
According to the 2008 American Community Survey, 74.6% of Hawaii's residents over the age of five speak only English at home.
19 February 2008
Obama had won the Hawaii Democratic caucus on February 19, 2008, with 76% of the vote. S.
4 November 2008, 6 November 2012
Honolulu-born Barack Obama, then serving as United States Senator from Illinois, was elected the 44th President of the United States on November 4, 2008 and was re-elected for a second term on November 6, 2012.
Perspective view of northwest elevation - Makiki Christian Church%2C 829 Pensacola Street%2C Honolulu%2C Honolulu County%2C HI HABS HI-533-1.tif
The largest denominations by number of adherents were the Roman Catholic Church with 249,619 adherents in 2010 and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 68,128 adherents in 2009.
In 2009, the United States military spent US$12.2 billion in Hawaii, accounting for 18% of spending in the state for that year. 75,000 United States Department of Defense personnel live in Hawaii.
As of 2009, Hawaii's health care system insures 92% of residents.
As of 2010, only 156,000 persons declared themselves to be of Native Hawaiian only ancestry, just over half of the pre-contact level Native Hawaiian population, although an additional 371,000 persons declared themselves to possess Native Hawaiian ancestry in combination with one or more other races (including other Polynesian groups, but mostly Asian and/or Caucasian).
1 July 2015, 2010
The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Hawaii was 1,431,603 on July 1, 2015; an increase of 5.2% since the 2010 United States Census.
US Navy 111218-N-RI884-097 The U.S. Pacific Fleet Marching Band participates in a parade through downtown Waikiki honoring Japanese-American vetera
Native Hawaiian musician and Hawaiian sovereignty activist Israel Kamakawiwoʻole, famous for his medley of "Somewhere Over the Rainbow/What a Wonderful World", was named "The Voice of Hawaii" by NPR in 2010 in its 50 great voices series.
During the 2011–2012 school year, Hawaii public and charter schools had an enrollment of 181,213, while private schools had 37,695.
In 2012, 14.5% of the resident population under age 1 was non-Hispanic white.
Hawaiian scholar Lilikalā Kameʻeleihiwa said, "If you didn't sleep with a man, how could you trust him when you went into battle? How would you know if he was going to be the warrior that would protect you at all costs, if he wasn't your lover?"A 2012 poll by Gallup found that Hawaii had the largest proportion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) adults in the U.
Seeds yielded US$264 million in 2012, supporting 1,400 workers.
He was appointed to the office on December 26, 2012, by Governor Neil Abercrombie, following the death of former senator Daniel Inouye.
In 2013, Hawaii became the fifteenth U.
It was expected to be one of three states that will not have a non-Hispanic white plurality in 2014; the other two are California and New Mexico.
Average electricity prices in October 2014 (36.41 cents per kilowatt-hour) were nearly three times the national average (12.58 cents per kilowatt-hour) and 80% higher than the second-highest state, Connecticut.
As of 2015, a large proportion of Hawaii's population have Asian ancestry—especially Filipino, Japanese and Chinese.
As of December 2015, the state's unemployment rate was 3.2%.
1) Until 2016, data for births of Asian origin, included also births of the Pacific Islander group. 2) Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
Currently there is a passenger ferry service in Maui County between Lanaʻi and Maui, which does not take vehicles; a passenger ferry to Molokai ended in 2016.
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