Further important sites of human advancement were Jarmo (circa 7100 BC), the Halaf culture and Ubaid period (between 6500 BC and 3800 BC).
4000 BC, 3100 BC
The historical period in Iraq truly begins during the Uruk period (4000 BC to 3100 BC), with the founding of a number of Sumerian cities, and the use of Pictographs, Cylinder seals and mass-produced goods.
2900 BC, 2801 BC
From the 29th century BC, Akkadian Semitic names began to appear on king lists and administrative documents of various city states.
2600 BC, 2501 BC
In the 26th century BC, Eannatum of Lagash created what was perhaps the first empire in history, though this was short-lived.
2500 BC, 2401 BC
The cities to the north like Ashur, Arbela (modern Erbil) and Arrapha (modern Kirkuk) were also extant in what was to be called Assyria from the 25th century BC; however, at this early stage, they were Sumerian ruled administrative centres.
2400 BC, 2301 BC, 2801, 2900
Between the 29th and 24th centuries BC, a number of kingdoms and city states within Iraq began to have Akkadian speaking dynasties; including Assyria, Ekallatum, Isin and Larsa.
Iraq in years
2335 BC, 2124 BC
However, the Sumerians remained generally dominant until the rise of the Akkadian Empire (2335–2124 BC), based in the city of Akkad in central Iraq.
2200 BC, 2101 BC
After the collapse of the Akkadian Empire in the late 22nd century BC, the Gutians occupied the south for a few decades, while Assyria reasserted its independence in the north.
2035 BC, 1750 BC
Assyria expanded territorially into the north eastern Levant, central Iraq, and eastern Anatolia, forming the Old Assyrian Empire (circa 2035–1750 BC) under kings such as Puzur-Ashur I, Sargon I, Ilushuma and Erishum I, the latter of whom produced the most detailed set of law yet written.
In 2009, the IBBC was established (Iraq Britain Business Council).
An Elamite invasion in 2004 BC brought the Sumerian revival to an end.
Iraq in decades
2000 BC, 1901 BC
During the 20th century BC, the Canaanite speaking Amorites began to migrate into southern Mesopotamia.
1900 BC, 1200 BC
During the Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC), Babylonia was in a state of chaos, dominated for long periods by Assyria and Elam.
One of these small Amorite kingdoms founded in 1894 BC contained the then small administrative town of Babylon within its borders.
In 1792 BC, an Amorite ruler named Hammurabi came to power in this state, and immediately set about building Babylon from a minor town into a major city, declaring himself its king.
The foreign Amorites clung on to power in a once more weak and small Babylonia until it was sacked by the Indo-European speaking Hittite Empire based in Anatolia in 1595 BC.
Iraq in centuries
The Sealand Dynasty was finally conquered by Kassite Babylonia circa 1380 BC.
1365 BC, 1020 BC
The Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1020 BC) saw Assyria rise to be the most powerful nation in the known world.
In 1235 BC, Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria took the throne of Babylon, thus becoming the very first native Mesopotamian to rule the state.
1100 BC, 1001 BC, 900 BC, 801 BC
However, these East Semitic Akkadian kings, were unable to prevent new waves of West Semitic migrants entering southern Iraq, and during the 11th century BC Arameans and Suteans entered Babylonia from The Levant, and these were followed in the late 10th to early 9th century BC by the migrant Chaldeans who were closely related to the earlier Arameans.
935 BC, 605 BC
After a period of comparative decline in Assyria, it once more began to expand with the Neo Assyrian Empire (935–605 BC).
Cylinder Seal%2C Old Babylonian%2C formerly in the Charterhouse Collection 09
900 BC, 801 BC
Initially, Babylon was ruled by yet another foreign dynasty, that of the Chaldeans, who had migrated to the region in the late 10th or early 9th century BC.
The Arabs and the Chaldeans are first mentioned in written history (circa 850 BC) in the annals of Shalmaneser III.
700 BC, 605 BC, 601 BC
In the late 7th century BC, the Assyrian Empire tore itself apart with a series of brutal civil wars, weakening itself to such a degree that a coalition of its former subjects; the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Medes, Persians, Parthians, Scythians and Cimmerians, were able to attack Assyria, finally bringing its empire down by 605 BC.
620 BC, 539 BC
The short-lived Neo-Babylonian Empire (620–539 BC) succeeded that of Assyria.
600 BC, 501 BC
In the 6th century BC, Cyrus the Great of neighbouring Persia defeated the Neo-Babylonian Empire at the Battle of Opis and Iraq was subsumed into the Achaemenid Empire for nearly two centuries.
P1150890 Louvre st%C3%A8le de victoire Akkad AO2678 rwk
However, by 556 BC, the Chaldeans had been deposed from power by the Assyrian born Nabonidus and his son and regent Belshazzar.
400 BC, 301 BC
In the late 4th century BC, Alexander the Great conquered the region, putting it under Hellenistic Seleucid rule for over two centuries.
247 BC, 171 BC, 138 BC, 224
The Parthians (247 BC – 224 AD) from Persia conquered the region during the reign of Mithridates I of Parthia (r. 171–138 BC).
The coalition forces proceeded with a bombing campaign targeting military targets and then launched a 100-hour-long ground assault against Iraqi forces in Southern Iraq and those occupying Kuwait.
Two reconnaissance squadrons use light aircraft, three helicopter squadrons are used to move troops and one air transportation squadron uses C-130 transport aircraft to move troops, equipment, and supplies.
The Umayyad Caliphate ruled the province of Iraq from Damascus in the 7th century. (However, eventually there was a separate, independent Caliphate of Córdoba in Iberia.)
The region was thus a province of the Sassanid Empire for over four centuries, and became the frontier and battle ground between the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine Empire, with both empires weakening each other, paving the way for the Arab-Muslim conquest of Persia in the mid-7th century.
The Abbasid Caliphate built the city of Baghdad in the 8th century as its capital, and the city became the leading metropolis of the Arab and Muslim World for five centuries.
800, 1900, 1999
The Population of Iraq, estimated at 30 million in 800 AD, was only 5 million at the start of the 20th century.
In southern Iraq, there is a community of Iraqis of African descent, a legacy of the slavery practised in the Islamic Caliphate beginning before the Zanj Rebellion of the 9th century, and Basra's role as a key port.
By the 17th century, the frequent conflicts with the Safavids had sapped the strength of the Ottoman Empire and had weakened its control over its provinces.
With the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639, most of the territory of present-day Iraq eventually came under the control of Ottoman Empire as the eyalet of Baghdad as a result of wars with the neighbouring rival, Safavid Iran.
During the years 1747–1831, Iraq was ruled by a Mamluk dynasty of Georgian origin who succeeded in obtaining autonomy from the Ottoman Porte, suppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order and introduced a programme of modernisation of economy and military.
Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabic was commonly used to describe Iraq.
In 1831, the Ottomans managed to overthrow the Mamluk regime and imposed their direct control over Iraq.
By the end of 1918, the British had deployed 410,000 men in the area, of which 112,000 were combat troops.
The institution of slavery was abolished in the 1920s.
Lawrence in The Times, Britain replaced Arnold Wilson in October 1920 with a new Civil Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox.
A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq.
The rulers during the occupation and the remainder of the Hashemite monarchy were Nuri as-Said, the autocratic Prime Minister, who also ruled from 1930 to 1932, and 'Abd al-Ilah, the former Regent who now served as an adviser to King Faisal II.
The most famous singer of the 1930s–1940s was perhaps the Jew Salima Pasha (later Salima Murad).
The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932.
Britain granted independence to the Kingdom of Iraq in 1932, on the urging of King Faisal, though the British retained military bases, local militia in the form of Assyrian Levies, and transit rights for their forces.
King Ghazi ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal's death in 1933, while undermined by attempted military coups, until his death in 1939.
In 1936, Iraq Radio was established with an ensemble made up entirely of Jews, with the exception of the percussion player.
US Navy 031016-N-3236B-043 A marine patrols the streets of Al Faw%2C Iraq
He was overthrown by Colonel Abdul Salam Arif in a February 1963 coup.
After the latter's death in 1966, he was succeeded by his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif, who was overthrown by the Ba'ath Party in 1968.
1967, 1977, 1987, 1997
However, the International Crisis Group points out that figures from the 1987 census, as well as the 1967, 1977, and 1997 censuses, "are all considered highly problematic, due to suspicions of regime manipulation" because Iraqi citizens were only allowed to indicate belonging to either the Arab or Kurdish ethnic groups; consequently, this skewed the number of other ethnic minorities, such as Iraq's third largest ethnic group – the Turkmens/Turkomans.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003.
1970, 1979, 1990
During the 1970s Iraq produced up to 3.5 million barrels per day, but sanctions imposed against Iraq after its invasion of Kuwait in 1990 crippled the country's oil sector.
Iraq had developed a centralised free health care system in the 1970s using a hospital based, capital-intensive model of curative care.
In 1979, the Iranian Revolution took place.
The country hadn't pumped that much oil since 1979, when Saddam Hussein rose to power.
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr became the first Ba'ath President of Iraq but then the movement gradually came under the control of Saddam Hussein, who acceded to the presidency and control of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), then Iraq's supreme executive body, in July 1979.
Relations between Iraq and its Kurdish population have been sour in recent history, especially with Saddam Hussein's genocidal campaign against them in the 1980s.
Following months of cross-border raids between the two countries, Saddam declared war on Iran in September 1980, initiating the Iran–Iraq War (or First Persian Gulf War).
In 1981, Israeli aircraft bombed an Iraqi nuclear materials testing reactor at Osirak and was widely criticised at the United Nations.
1986, 2007, 2009
The Iraqi National Football Team were the 2007 AFC Asian Cup champions after defeating Saudi Arabia in the final by 1–0 thanks to a goal by captain Younis Mahmoud and they have participated in two FIFA competitions (the 1986 FIFA World Cup and the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup).
According to the CIA World Factbook, citing a 1987 Iraqi government estimate, the population of Iraq is formed of 75-80% Arabs followed by 15% Kurds.
The war, which ended in stalemate in 1988, had cost the lives of between half a million and 1.5 million people.
Pre-referendum%2C pro-Kurdistan%2C pro-independence rally in Erbil%2C Kurdistan Region of Iraq 25
Whereas it was widely believed that the sanctions caused a major rise in child mortality, recent research has shown that commonly cited data were fabricated by the Iraqi government and that "there was no major rise in child mortality in Iraq after 1990 and during the period of the sanctions." An oil for food program was established in 1996 to ease the effects of sanctions.
Close to the coast and along the Shatt al-Arab (known as arvandrūd: اروندرود among Iranians) there used to be marshlands, but many were drained in the 1990s.
Since the establishment of the no–fly zones following the Gulf War of 1990–1991, the Kurds established their own autonomous region.
The UNICEF/WHO report noted that prior to 1990, 97% of the urban dwellers and 71% of the rural population had access to free primary health care; just 2% of hospital beds were privately managed.
The Coalition Provisional Authority undertook a complete reform of Iraq's education system: Baathist ideology was removed from curricula and there were substantial increases in teacher salaries and training programs, which the Hussein regime neglected in the 1990s.
The live theatre scene received a boost during the 1990s when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films.
In August 1990, Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait.
Chemical weapons were also used against Iraqi Shia civilians during the 1991 uprisings in Iraq.
Shortly after it ended in 1991, Shia and Kurdish Iraqis led several uprisings against Saddam Hussein's regime, but these were successfully repressed using the Iraqi security forces and chemical weapons.
In 1995 Iraq introduced Sharia punishment for certain types of criminal offences.
Haider al-Abadi and Donald Trump in the Oval Office%2C March 2017
Despite having mobile phones in the Middle East since 1995, Iraqis were only able to use mobile phones after 2003.
The sanctions prohibited Iraq from exporting oil until 1996 and Iraq's output declined by 85% in the years following the First Gulf War.
This is down from a peak life expectancy of 71.31 years in 1996.
For example, enrollment numbers nearly doubled from 2000 to 2012.
Early in the 2000s, the UNESCO International Bureau of Education found that the education system in Iraq had issues with standard-built school buildings, having enough teachers, implementing a standardized curricula, textbooks and technologies that are needed to help reach its educational goals.
Iraqi Kurdish villagers in field near Turkish border
The CIA World Factbook estimates that, in 2000, the adult literacy rate was 84% for males and 64% for females, with UN figures suggesting a small fall in literacy of Iraqis aged 15–24 between 2000 and 2008, from 84.8% to 82.4%.
Bush administration began planning the overthrow of Saddam's government and in October 2002, the US Congress passed the Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq.
After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005.
The Iraqi Government's failure to disarm and agree to a ceasefire resulted in sanctions which remained in place until 2003.
Tankers at the Iraqi Al Basra Oil Terminal in the Northern Arabian Gulf
In fall 2003, self-entitled 'jihadist' groups began targeting coalition forces.
Various Sunni militias were created in 2003, for example Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi.
The Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal came to light, late 2003 in reports by Amnesty International and Associated Press.
April 2004, 2003
The Mahdi Army—a Shia militia created in the summer of 2003 by Muqtada al-Sadr—began to fight Coalition forces in April 2004. 2004 saw Sunni and Shia militants fighting against each other and against the new Iraqi Interim Government installed in June 2004, and against Coalition forces, as well as the First Battle of Fallujah in April and Second Battle of Fallujah in November.
November 2009, 2003
Crime and violence initially spiked in the months following the US withdrawal from cities in mid-2009 but despite the initial increase in violence, in November 2009, Iraqi Interior Ministry officials reported that the civilian death toll in Iraq fell to its lowest level since the 2003 invasion.
Immediately, and the ban on satellite dishes is no longer in place, and by mid-2003, according to a BBC report, there were 20 radio stations from 0.15 to 17 television stations owned by Iraqis, and 200 Iraqi newspapers owned and operated.
Iraqi media expert and author of a number of reports on this subject, Ibrahim Al Marashi, identifies four stages of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 where they had been taking the steps that have significant effects on the way for the later of the Iraqi media since then.
20 March 2003
On 20 March 2003, a United States-organized coalition invaded Iraq, under the pretext that Iraq had failed to abandon its weapons of mass destruction program in violation of UN Resolution 687.
In May 2003 L.
The country depended on large-scale imports of medicines, medical equipment and even nurses, paid for with oil export income, according to a "Watching Brief" report issued jointly by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in July 2003.
Public holidays in Iraq include Republic Day on 14 July and the National Day on 3 October.
However, insurgent attacks were common and increased to 34,131 in 2005 from 26,496 in 2004.
In 2004, the CPA chief executive L.
Since the new Constitution of Iraq approved in June 2004, both Arabic and Kurdish are official languages, while Assyrian Neo-Aramaic and the Turkmen/Turkoman dialect of Turkish (referred to as respectively "Syriac" and "Turkmen" in the constitution) are recognised regional languages.
The Sunni militia Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad became Al-Qaeda in Iraq in October 2004 and targeted Coalition forces as well as civilians, mainly Shia Muslims, further exacerbating ethnic tensions.
On November 20, 2004, the Paris Club of creditor nations agreed to write off 80% ($33 billion) of Iraq's $42 billion debt to Club members.
In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq" (Jumhūrīyyat al-'Irāq).
Iran–Iraq relations have flourished since 2005 by the exchange of high level visits: Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki made frequent visits to Iran, along with Jalal Talabani visiting numerous times, to help boost bilateral co-operation in all fields.
Despite historically poor relations, some progress has been made, and Iraq elected its first Kurdish president, Jalal Talabani, in 2005.
Since 2005, the Turkmen/Turkoman have switched from the Arabic script to the Turkish alphabet.
In 2005, obstacles to further reform were poor security conditions in many areas, a centralised system that lacked accountability for teachers and administrators, and the isolation in which the system functioned for the previous 30 years.
In January 2005, the first elections since the invasion took place and in October a new Constitution was approved, which was followed by parliamentary elections in December.
In October 2005, the new Constitution of Iraq was approved in a referendum with a 78% overall majority, although the percentage of support varying widely between the country's territories.
15 December 2005
Under the terms of the constitution, the country conducted fresh nationwide parliamentary elections on 15 December 2005.
During 2006, fighting continued and reached its highest levels of violence, more war crimes scandals were made public, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi the leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq was killed by US forces and Iraq's former dictator Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death for crimes against humanity and hanged.
In late 2006, the US government's Iraq Study Group recommended that the US begin focusing on training Iraqi military personnel and in January 2007 US President George W.
The Iraq oil law, a proposed piece of legislation submitted to the Iraqi Council of Representatives in 2007, has failed to gain approval due to disagreements among Iraq's various political blocs.
In 2007, the UN said that about 40% of Iraq's middle class is believed to have fled and that most are fleeing systematic persecution and have no desire to return.
In May 2007, Iraq's Parliament called on the United States to set a timetable for withdrawal and US coalition partners such as the UK and Denmark began withdrawing their forces from the country.
According to a US Study from May 2007, between 100,000 barrels per day (16,000 m3/d) and 300,000 barrels per day (48,000 m3/d) of Iraq's declared oil production over the past four years could have been siphoned off through corruption or smuggling.
In recent years the diaspora seems to be returning with the increased security; the Iraqi government claimed that 46,000 refugees have returned to their homes in October 2007 alone.
=== 2008–present ===
In 2008, fighting continued and Iraq's newly trained armed forces launched attacks against militants.
As of mid-2008, logistical problems included a maintenance crisis and ongoing supply problems.
Investigations by the BBC and other western media in 2008 and 2009, including interviews of homosexual and transgender Iraqis, showed that violence against LGBT people had significantly increased since Saddam Hussein was toppled.
In 2008, Al Jazeera reported $13 billion of Iraqi oil revenues in US care was improperly accounted for, of which $2.6 billion is totally unaccounted for.
In 2008, there were 6.96 physicians and 13.92 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants.
2 May 2008
Prior to 2003 their numbers together may have been 2 million, the majority Yarsan, a non-Islamic religion with roots in pre-Islamic and pre-Christian religion.
In June 2008, the Iraqi Oil Ministry announced plans to go ahead with small one- or two-year no-bid contracts to Exxon Mobil, Shell, Total and BP—once partners in the Iraq Petroleum Company—along with Chevron and smaller firms to service Iraq's largest fields.
17 November 2008
On 17 November 2008, the US and Iraq agreed to a Status of Forces Agreement, as part of the broader Strategic Framework Agreement.
In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 6.84% of the country's GDP.
The life expectancy at birth was 68.49 years in 2010, or 65.13 years for males and 72.01 years for females.
The US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country.
Following the withdrawal of US troops in 2011, the insurgency continued and Iraq suffered from political instability.
The Iraqi National Movement, reportedly representing the majority of Iraqi Sunnis, boycotted Parliament for several weeks in late 2011 and early 2012, claiming that the Shiite-dominated government was striving to sideline Sunnis.
Masgouf%2C an Iraqi tradition - Flickr - Al Jazeera English
Public sector employment accounted for nearly 60% of full-time employment in 2011.
Currently only a modest percentage of women (the highest estimate for 2011 was 22%) participate in the labour force.
A 2011 Pew Research Center estimates that 51% of Muslims in Iraq are Shia, 42% are Sunni, while 5% identify themselves as "Just a Muslim".
As of 2011, nearly 3 million Iraqis have been displaced, with 1.3 million within Iraq and 1.6 million in neighbouring countries, mainly Jordan and Syria.
In February 2011, the Arab Spring protests spread to Iraq; but the initial protests did not topple the government.
In February 2011, Citigroup included Iraq in a group of countries which it described as 'Global Growth Generators', that it argued will enjoy significant economic growth in the future.
25 May 2011
According to official United States Citizenship and Immigration Services statistics, 58,811 Iraqis have been granted refugee-status citizenship as of May 25, 2011.
In October 2011, the Turkish parliament renewed a law that gives Turkish forces the ability to pursue rebels over the border in Iraq."
18 December 2011
On the morning of 18 December 2011, the final contingent of US troops to be withdrawn ceremonially exited over the border to Kuwait.
In 2012 and 2013, levels of violence increased and armed groups inside Iraq were increasingly galvanised by the Syrian Civil War.
To escape the civil war, over 160,000 Syrian refugees of varying ethnicities have fled to Iraq since 2012.
18 January 2012
On 18 January 2012, Iraq was connected to the undersea communications network for the first time.
In October 2012, the Emirati property firm, Emaar Properties reached a deal with the Iraqi Ministry of Construction and Housing to build and develop housing and commercial projects in Iraq.
In December 2012, Sunni Arabs protested against the government, whom they claimed marginalised them.
Oil production levels reached 3.4 million barrels per day by December 2012.
During 2013, Sunni militant groups stepped up attacks targeting the Iraq's Shia population in an attempt to undermine confidence in the Nouri al-Maliki-led government.
Nevertheless, progress was made and the country had risen to 11th place by 2013.
In 2013 Iraq's population reached 35 million amid a post-war population boom.
UNICEF found that in 2013-2014, enrollment numbers for boys was at about five million while girls were at about 4.2 million.
The biggest club in Iraq is Al-Shorta, who won back-to-back league titles in 2013 and 2014 and were the first ever winners of the Arab Champions League.
In 2013, it was reported that 78% of Iraqis owned a mobile phone.
In January 2013, the Emirati property firm, Nakheel Properties signed a deal to build Al Nakheel City, a future town in Basra, Iraq.
September 2013, 2016
Although many infrastructure projects are underway, Iraq remains in deep housing crisis, with the war-ravaged country likely to complete only 5 percent of the 2.5 million homes it needs to build by 2016 to keep up with demand, the Minister for Construction and Housing said in September 2013.
In October 2013, the Iraqi Minister for Communication ordered internet prices to be lowered by a third.
In 2014, Sunni insurgents belonging to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) terrorist group seized control of large swathes of land including several major Iraqi cities, like Tikrit, Fallujah and Mosul creating hundreds of thousands of internally displaced persons amid reports of atrocities by ISIL fighters.
In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) during the first half of 2014, and its universally-condemned executions and reported human rights abuses, many states began to intervene against it in the Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017).
As a result, almost 20% of the funding for education was lost to dropouts and repetition for the year 2014-2015.
In addition, some schools were converted into refugee shelters or military bases in 2014 as conflict began to increase.
14 March 2014
On 14 March 2014, the International Energy Agency said Iraq's oil output jumped by half a million barrels a day in February to average 3.6 million barrels a day.
After an inconclusive election in April 2014, Nouri al-Maliki served as caretaker-Prime-Minister.
14 July 2014
However, on 14 July 2014, as sectarian strife had taken hold, Kurdistan Regional Government forces seized control of the Bai Hassan and Kirkuk oilfields in the north of the country, taking them from Iraq's control.
In August 2014, al-Maliki's reign came to an end.
11 August 2014
On 11 August, Iraq's highest court ruled that PM Maliki's bloc is biggest in parliament, meaning Maliki could stay Prime Minister.
13 August 2014
By 13 August, however, the Iraqi president had tasked Haider al-Abadi with forming a new government, and the United Nations, the United States, the European Union, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and some Iraqi politicians expressed their wish for a new leadership in Iraq, for example from Haider al-Abadi.
14 August 2014
On 14 August, Maliki stepped down as PM to support Mr al-Abadi and to "safeguard the high interests of the country".
14 August 2014
He announced on 14 August 2014 that he would stand aside so that Haider Al-Abadi, who had been nominated just days earlier by newly installed President Fuad Masum, could take over.
9 September 2014
On 9 September 2014, Haider al-Abadi had formed a new government and became the new prime minister.
March 2015, June 2016, July 2017
Since 2015, ISIL lost territory in Iraq, including Tikrit in March and April 2015, Baiji in October 2015, Sinjar in November 2015, Ramadi in December 2015, Fallujah in June 2016 and Mosul in July 2017.
The latest statistic from 2015-2016 showed that almost 9.2 million children were in school.
In 2015-2016, the enrollment numbers for girls increased by 400,000 from the previous year where a large number of them were located in Iraq Centre.
The 2016 Karrada bombing killed nearly 400 civilians and injured hundreds more.
Government payroll have increased from 1 million employees under Saddam Hussein to around 7 million employees in 2016.
In combination with decreased oil prices, the government budget deficit is near 25% of GDP as of 2016.
The 2016 estimate of the total Iraqi population is 37,202,572.
However, in 2017, there were efforts being made to open up 47 schools that had previously been closed.
17 March 2017
On 17 March 2017, a US-led coalition airstrike in Mosul killed more than 200 civilians.
25 September 2017
A referendum about the full Sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017.
In September 2017, a referendum was held regarding Kurdish independence in Iraq. 92% of Iraqi Kurds voted in favor of independence.
9 December 2017
On 9 December 2017, Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq.
By December 2017, ISIL had no remaining territory in Iraq, following the 2017 Western Iraq campaign.
In 2018, according to the Failed States Index, Iraq was the world's eleventh most politically unstable country.
It is planned to increase to 18,000 personnel, with 550 aircraft by 2018.
In March 2018, Turkey launched military operations to eliminate the Kurdish separatist fighters in northern Iraq.
Anti-American cleric Muqtada al-Sadr's political coalition won Iraq's parliamentary election in May 2018.
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