Timeline - Chronology of Mexico

8000 BC
Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec before first contact with Europeans.

5000 BC
This enabled the transition from paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers to sedentary agricultural villages beginning around 5000 BC.

1521 BC
In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan (part of Mexico City), which was administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.

1500 BC
The earliest complex civilization in Mexico was the Olmec culture, which flourished on the Gulf Coast from around 1500 BC.

128
The Senate is made up of 128 senators.

286
Much of the identity, traditions and architecture of Mexico developed during the 286-year colonial period.

Mexico in years

Mexico in years

286, 1521
The capture of Tenochtitlan and refounding of Mexico City in 1521 was the beginning of a 286-year-long colonial era during which Mexico was known as Nueva España (New Spain).

300
Mexican culture reflects the complexity of the country's history through the blending of indigenous cultures and the culture of Spain, imparted during Spain's 300-year occupation of Mexico.

February 1519, 500
The natives kept "repeating: Colua, Colua, and Mexico, Mexico, but we [explorers] did not know what Colua or Mexico meant", until encountering Montezuma's governor at the mouth of the Rio de las Banderas. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire began in February 1519 when Hernán Cortés arrived at the port in Veracruz with ca. 500 conquistadores.

600
After the collapse of Teotihuacán around 600 AD, competition ensued between several important political centers in central Mexico such as Xochicalco and Cholula.

1000, 1519
==== Post-classic period (ca. 1000–1519 AD) ====

Mexico in decades

Mexico in decades

1500, 1599
However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain.

1500, 1599
This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative [ʒ], represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative [x] during the 16th century.

1500, 1599
This distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition of human sacrifice ended with the gradually Spanish conquest in the 16th century.

1500, 1599
Many Mexican cultural features including tequila, first distilled in the 16th century, charreria (17th), mariachi (18th) and Mexican cuisine, a fusion of American and European (particularly Spanish) cuisine, arose during the colonial era.

1500, 1599
Although Mexico was also a recipient of black slaves from Africa in the 16th century, the apogee of these cults is relatively new.

Mexico in centuries

Mexico in centuries

1500, 1599
The mural painting had an important flowering during the 16th century, the same in religious constructions as in houses of lineage; such is the case of the convents of Acolman, Actopan, Huejotzingo, Tecamachalco and Zinacantepec.

1518
The Spanish first learned of Mexico during the Juan de Grijalva expedition of 1518.

1519, 1521
=== Conquest of the Aztec Triple Alliance (1519–1521) ===

1520, 1529
Unintentionally introduced by Spanish conquerors, among whom smallpox was endemic, the infectious disease ravaged Mesoamerica in the 1520s.

1521
Mexico City was systematically rebuilt by Cortés following the Fall of Tenochtitlan in 1521.

CodexMendoza01

Reproduced from WIKI

CodexMendoza01

1521, 1821
=== Viceroyalty of New Spain (1521–1821) ===

1521, 2010
The presence of Jews in Mexico dates back to 1521, when Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs, accompanied by several Conversos. According to the 2010 census, there are 67,476 Jews in Mexico.

1524
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

1531
The 1531 Marian apparitions to Saint Juan Diego gave impetus to the evangelization of central Mexico.

1535
The territory became part of the Spanish Empire under the name of New Spain in 1535.

Baja California Sur

Reproduced from WIKI

Baja California Sur

1535
Subsequent enlargements, such as the conquest of the Tarascan state, resulted in the creation of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in 1535.

1539, 1551, 1592, 1646
Due to the importance of New Spain administrative base, Mexico was the location of the first printing shop (1539), first university (1551), first public park (1592), and first public library (1646) in the Americas, amongst other institutions.

1576, 1606, 1616, 1620, 1680
Notable Amerindian revolts in sporadically populated northern New Spain include the Chichimeca War (1576–1606), Tepehuán Revolt (1616–1620) and the Pueblo Revolt (1680).

1600, 1602
The native Population declined 80–90% by 1600 to 1–2.5 million.

1600, 1699
The indigenous population stabilized around one to one and a half million individuals in the 17th century from the most commonly accepted five to ten million pre-contact population.

15-07-13-Teotihuacan-RalfR-WMA 0257

Reproduced from WIKI

15-07-13-Teotihuacan-RalfR-WMA 0257

1600, 1699
Mexico had an active slave trade during the colonial period and some 200,000 Africans were taken there, primarily in the 17th century.

1600, 1699
Since the 17th century, white and mestizo sculptors have created works with a marked influence of European classicism.

1663, 1683
Among the best-known pirate attacks are the 1663 Sack of Campeche and 1683 Attack on Veracruz.

1700, 1799
The 18th century saw a great increase in the percentage of mestizos.

1793
The first census in Mexico (then known as New Spain) that included an ethnic classification was the 1793 census.

Templo Mayor 50

Reproduced from WIKI

Templo Mayor 50

1793
In recent time nonetheless, Mexican academics have subjected the census' results to scrutiny, claiming that such a drastic alteration in demographic trends in regards to the 1793 census is not possible and cite, among other statistics the relatively low frequency of marriages between people of different continental ancestries in colonial and early independent Mexico.

1800, 1899
The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, and the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century.

1800, 1899
Prescott, it was adopted by most of the world, including 19th-century Mexican scholars who considered it a way to distinguish present-day Mexicans from pre-conquest Mexicans.

1800, 1899
Throughout the 19th century, the population of Mexico had barely doubled.

1800, 1899, 1900, 1999
While during the colonial era, most of the European migration into Mexico was Spanish, in the 19th and 20th centuries a substantial number of non-Spanish Europeans immigrated to the country.

Murales Rivera - Markt in Tlatelolco 3

Reproduced from WIKI

Murales Rivera - Markt in Tlatelolco 3

1800, 1899, 1900, 1999
Modern Asian immigration began in the late 19th century and at one point in the early 20th century, the Chinese were the second largest immigrant group.

1800, 1899
The Chipilo dialect, a variance of the Venetian language, is spoken in the town of Chipilo, located in the central state of Puebla, by around 2,500 people, mainly descendants of Venetians that migrated to the area in the late 19th century.

1800, 1899, 1900, 1999
The Porfirian era (el Porfiriato), in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace.

1800, 1899
The painting of the 19th century had a very marked romantic influence, landscapes and portraits were the greatest expression of this era.

1800, 1899
In the 19th century the neoclassical movement arose as a response to the objectives of the republican nation, one of its examples are the Hospicio Cabañas where the strict plastic of the classical orders are represented in their architectural elements, new religious buildings also arise, civilian and military that demonstrate the presence of neoclassicism.

Cortez %26 La Malinche

Reproduced from WIKI

Cortez %26 La Malinche

1800, 1899
It is commonly believed that football was introduced in Mexico by Cornish miners at the end of the 19th century.

May 1800
In the Yucatán peninsula the word Mestizo has a different meaning, being used to refer to the Maya-speaking populations living in traditional communities, because during the Caste War of the late 19th century those Maya who did not join the rebellion were classified as mestizos.

1810, 1821
=== War of Independence (1810–1821) ===

16 September 1810
On September 16, 1810, a "loyalist revolt" against the ruling junta was declared by priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, in the small town of Dolores, Guanajuato.

16 September 1810
This event, known as the Cry of Dolores (Spanish: Grito de Dolores) is commemorated each year, on September 16, as Mexico's independence day.

Leutze%2C Emanuel %E2%80%94 Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and His Troops %E2%80%94 1848

Reproduced from WIKI

Leutze%2C Emanuel %E2%80%94 Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and His Troops %E2%80%94 1848

31 July 1811
Hidalgo and some of his soldiers were captured and executed by firing squad in Chihuahua, on July 31, 1811.

6 November 1811
In 1813 the Congress of Chilpancingo was convened and, on November 6, signed the "Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America".

6 November 1813
The declaration of independence signed on November 6, 1813 by the deputies of the Congress of Anáhuac called the territory América Septentrional (Northern America).

22 December 1815
Morelos was captured and executed on December 22, 1815.

1820
In subsequent years, the insurgency was near collapse, but in 1820 Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca sent an army under the criollo general Agustín de Iturbide against the troops of Vicente Guerrero.

El caballito de Tolsa a

Reproduced from WIKI

El caballito de Tolsa a

1820
Between 1820 and 1880 the predominant themes were, successively: religious images, biblical scenes, allegories to the symbols of the insurgency movement and scenes and characters of pre-Cortesian history, and portraits of the old aristocracy, of the nascent bourgeoisie and commanders of the pre-revolution.

1821
Three centuries later, the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the colony's Mexican War of Independence.

1821, 1823, 1863, 1867
On two occasions (1821–1823 and 1863–1867), the country was known as Imperio Mexicano (Mexican Empire).

1821, 1846
=== First Empire and First Republic (1821–1846) ===

24 August 1821
Instead, Iturbide approached Guerrero to join forces, and on August 24, 1821 representatives of the Spanish Crown and Iturbide signed the "Treaty of Córdoba" and the "Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire", which recognized the independence of Mexico under the terms of the "Plan of Iguala".

Sor Juana In%C3%A9s de la Cruz %281772%29

Reproduced from WIKI

Sor Juana In%C3%A9s de la Cruz %281772%29

1822
Agustín de Iturbide became constitutional emperor of the First Mexican Empire in 1822.

1823
A revolt against him in 1823 established the United Mexican States.

1824, 1857, 1917
All three federal constitutions (1824, 1857 and 1917, the current constitution) used the name Estados Unidos Mexicanos—or the variant Estados-Unidos Mexicanos, all of which have been translated as "United Mexican States".

1824
In 1824, a Republican Constitution was drafted and Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of the newly born country.

1824
When he suspended the 1824 Constitution, civil war spread across the country.

Guanaguato at night

Reproduced from WIKI

Guanaguato at night

1824, 1900, 1999
José María Morelos noted in his writings that there should be no tolerance for any other religion and the Constitution of 1824 declared that the official religion of the Republic would be Catholic, and from the second half of the 20th century, began a process of introducing creeds different from the Catholic.

1829
In 1829 president Guerrero abolished slavery.

1836
The phrase República Mexicana, "Mexican Republic", was used in the 1836 Constitutional Laws.

1836
The first decades of the post-independence period were marked by economic instability, which led to the Pastry War in 1836.

1836
General Antonio López de Santa Anna, a centralist and two-time dictator, approved the Siete Leyes in 1836, a radical amendment that institutionalized the centralized form of government.

Miguel Hidalgo

Reproduced from WIKI

Miguel Hidalgo

1843
In 1843, with the publication of the work of William H.

1846, 1848
The Mexican–American War (1846–1848) led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States.

1846, 1867
=== Second Republic and Second Empire (1846–1867) ===

1846
The 1846 United States annexation of the Republic of Texas and subsequent American military incursion into territory that was part of Coahuila (also claimed by Texas) instigated the Mexican–American War.

1847
The Caste War of Yucatán, the Maya uprising that began in 1847, was one of the most successful modern Native American revolts.

BenitoJuarez

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BenitoJuarez

1848
The war was settled in 1848 via the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

1850, 1859
Mexico's short recovery after the War of Independence was soon cut short again by the civil wars and institutional instability of the 1850s, which lasted until the government of Porfirio Díaz reestablished conditions that paved the way for economic growth.

1854
A much smaller transfer of territory in what is today southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico—known as the Gadsden Purchase—occurred in 1854.

1857
The new Constitution drafted in 1857 established a secular state, federalism as the form of government, and several freedoms.

1857, 1917
A third force, the constitutional army led by Venustiano Carranza managed to bring an end to the war, and radically amended the 1857 Constitution to include many of the social premises and demands of the revolutionaries into what was eventually called the 1917 Constitution.

Madero en Cuernavaca

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Madero en Cuernavaca

1857, 1917
In spite of this, the Mexican State is officially lay secularist since the separation between religious institutions and the political administration of the nation was enshrined in the 1857, and was ratified in the current Constitution of 1917.

1858
As the Conservatives. refused to recognize it, the Reform War began in 1858, during which both groups had their own governments.

1860, 1869
In the 1860s Mexico was occupied by France, which established the Second Mexican Empire under the rule of the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria with support from the Roman Catholic clergy and the Conservatives.

1861
The war ended in 1861 with victory by the Liberals, led by president Benito Juárez, who was an ethnic Zapotec.

14 June 1867, 19 June 1867
Maximilian surrendered, was tried on June 14, 1867, and was executed a few days later on June 19 in Querétaro.

Nafta

Reproduced from WIKI

Nafta

1876, 1911
=== Porfiriato (1876–1911) ===

1876
Porfirio Díaz, a republican general during the French intervention, was elected the 29th president in 1876.

1880
The 1880 election was won by Manuel González Flores.

1884, 1911
Díaz was reelected in 1884 and ruled until 1911.

1895, 2000
Life expectancy went from 36 years (in 1895) to 72 years (in the year 2000).

Mexico topo

Reproduced from WIKI

Mexico topo

1900, 1999
This usage has been the subject of debate since the late 20th century.

1900, 1920, 1999, 2000
=== Early-20th-century stability and one-party rule (1920–2000) ===

1900, 1936, 1999
Many scientific institutes and new institutes of higher learning, such as National Polytechnic Institute (founded in 1936), were established during the first half of the 20th century.

1900, 1920, 1999
This trend continued during the first two decades of the 20th century, and even in the 1920 census there was a loss of about 2 million inhabitants.

1900, 1999
According to 20th- and 21st-century academics, large scale intermixing between European immigrants and native Indigenous peoples would produce a Mestizo group which would become the overwhelming majority of Mexico's population by the time of the Mexican revolution.

Chapultepec Zoo - Jaguar %2802%29

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Chapultepec Zoo - Jaguar %2802%29

1900, 1999
During the early 20th century, a substantial number of Arabs (mostly Christians) began arriving from the crumbling Ottoman Empire.

1900, 1999
The Mexican painting of the 20th century has achieved World renown with figures such as David Alfaro Siqueiros, José Clemente Orozco, Joaquín Clausell, Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera, generation of idealists who marked the image of modern Mexico in the face of strong social and economic criticism.

1900, 1999
The Oaxacan School quickly gained fame and prestige, diffusion of an ancestral and modern culture, freedom of design is observed in relation to the color and texture of the canvases and murals as a period of transition between the 20th century and the 21st century.

1900, 1999
During the 20th century, great exponents of Mexican sculpture are Juan Soriano, José Luis Cuevas, Enrique Carbajal (Sebastián), English Leonora Carrington.

1900, 1999
Mexican architecture is a cultural phenomenon born of the ideology of nationalist governments of the 20th century, which was shaping the identity image by its colorful and variegated ornamental elements inherited from ancestral cultures, classical and monumental forms and, subsequently, the incorporation of modernism and cutting-edge international trends.

Mexican wolf lounging

Reproduced from WIKI

Mexican wolf lounging

1900, 1999
Antonio Carbajal was the first player to appear in five World Cups, and Hugo Sánchez was named best CONCACAF player of the 20th century by IFFHS.

1902
By 1902 a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence.

1909
Although this period is usually referred to as the Mexican Revolution, it might also be termed a civil war since president Díaz (1909) narrowly escaped assassination and presidents Francisco I.

16 October 1909
S. support, Díaz and William Howard Taft planned a summit in El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, for October 16, 1909, an historic first meeting between a Mexican and a U. R.

1910, 1917
The Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic.

Axolote

Reproduced from WIKI

Axolote

1910, 1920
=== Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) ===

1910
Díaz was re-elected in 1910, but alleged electoral fraud forced him into exile in France and sparked the 1910 Mexican Revolution, initially led by Francisco I.

1910
It is estimated that the war killed 900,000 of the 1910 population of 15 million.

1910
The National Autonomous University of Mexico was officially established in 1910, and the university became one of the most important institutes of higher learning in Mexico.

1910
The phenomenon can be explained because during the decade from 1910 to 1920 the Mexican Revolution took place.

Andr%C3%A9s Manuel L%C3%B3pez Obrador%2C presidente de M%C3%A9xico

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Andr%C3%A9s Manuel L%C3%B3pez Obrador%2C presidente de M%C3%A9xico

1911
President Díaz announced in 1908 that he would retire in 1911, resulting in the development of new coalitions.

1913, 1919, 1920, 1923, 1928
Madero (1913), Venustiano Carranza (1920), Álvaro Obregón (1928), and former revolutionary leaders Emiliano Zapata (1919) and Pancho Villa (1923) all were assassinated during this period.

1917
The United Mexican States are a Federation whose government is representative, democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the 1917 Constitution.

1917, 1920, 1929
The 1920s was marked by a religious conflict known as the Cristero War, in which many peasants encouraged by the clergy clashed with the federal government that had decided to enforce the constitutional laws of 1917.

1920
Assassinated in 1920, Carranza was succeeded by another revolutionary hero, Álvaro Obregón, who in turn was succeeded by Plutarco Elías Calles.

Suprema4

Reproduced from WIKI

Suprema4

1921
According to the Mexican census of 1921 and publications who retake it's results such as Encyclopædia Britannica, the majority of Mexicans (from 50% to 67% of the country's population) identify as Mestizo, although modern research has observed that when asked directly about their ethno-racial identification, many Mexicans do not identify as Mestizos.

1921
Similarly to Mestizo and Indigenous peoples, estimations for the percentage of European-descended Mexicans within the Mexican population vary considerably: according to the Encyclopædia Britannica which uses as reference the 1921 census their numbers range from around 10%–20%. (the results of the 1921 census, however, have been contested by various historians and deemed inaccurate).

1921
According to Mexico's second census ever that considered race, made right after the Mexican revolution in 1921, 59% of Mexico's population was Mestizo, 29% was Indigenous and only 9% was European, with Mestizos being the most numerous ethno-racial group in almost all the states.

1925
In light of the various ethnicities that formed the Mexican people, José Vasconcelos in his publication La Raza Cósmica (The Cosmic Race) (1925) defined Mexico to be the melting pot of all races (thus extending the definition of the mestizo) not only biologically but culturally as well.

1928
Obregón was reelected in 1928 but was assassinated before he could assume power.

FederalPoliceDF

Reproduced from WIKI

FederalPoliceDF

1929
In 1929, Calles founded the National Revolutionary Party (PNR), later renamed the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), and started a period known as the Maximato, which ended with the election of Lázaro Cárdenas, who implemented many economic and social reforms.

1929, 1939, 1989
Three parties have historically been the dominant parties in Mexican politics: the National Action Party: a conservative party founded in 1939 and belonging to the Christian Democrat Organization of America; the Institutional Revolutionary Party, a center-left party and member of Socialist International that was founded in 1929 to unite all the factions of the Mexican Revolution and held an almost hegemonic power in Mexican politics since then; the Party of the Democratic Revolution: a left-wing party, founded in 1989 as the successor of the coalition of socialists and liberal parties.

1929, 1973
Twelve institutes were integrated into UNAM from 1929 to 1973.

1930, 1939
Maya rebels, or Cruzob, maintained relatively independent enclaves in the peninsula until the 1930s.

1930, 1939
Since the 1930s, the Estrada Doctrine has served as a crucial complement to these principles.

Ayotz1napa ohs202

Reproduced from WIKI

Ayotz1napa ohs202

1930, 1939, 1960, 1969
The "Big Three" (General Motors, Ford and Chrysler) have been operating in Mexico since the 1930s, while Volkswagen and Nissan built their plants in the 1960s.

1930, 1939, 1950, 1980, 1989
The growth rate increased dramatically between the 1930s and the 1980s, when the country registered growth rates of over 3% (1950–1980).

March 1938
This included the Mexican oil expropriation in March 1938, which nationalized the U.

1940, 1980
Between 1940 and 1980, Mexico remained a poor country but experienced substantial economic growth that some historians call the "Mexican miracle".

1940, 1949, 1950, 1959
Mexican films from the Golden Age in the 1940s and 1950s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years.

The Three Amigos 2016

Reproduced from WIKI

The Three Amigos 2016

1943, 1946
Maria Candelaria (1943) by Emilio Fernández, was one of the first films awarded a Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 1946, the first time the event was held after World War II.

1947, 1950, 1959, 1960, 1969
The first highly successful instance being the discovery in 1947 of the tuber "Barbasco" (Dioscorea composita) which has a high content of diosgenin, revolutionizing the production of synthetic hormones in the 1950s and 1960s and eventually leading to the invention of combined oral contraceptive pills.

1947, 1949, 1961, 1965
The famous Spanish-born director Luis Buñuel realized in Mexico between 1947 and 1965 some of his masterpieces like Los Olvidados (1949) and Viridiana (1961).

1959
In 1959, the Mexican Academy of Sciences was created to coordinate scientific efforts between academics.

1960, 1969, 1970, 1979, 1980, 1989
Mexico supported the Cuban government since its establishment in the early 1960s, the Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua during the late 1970s, and leftist revolutionary groups in El Salvador during the 1980s.

Marina-Panther-Unitasgold2009

Reproduced from WIKI

Marina-Panther-Unitasgold2009

1960, 1969, 1990, 1999
In the early 1960s, around 600,000 Mexicans lived abroad, which increased sevenfold by the 1990s to 4.4 million.

1962
A., which has built buses and trucks since 1962, and the new Mastretta company that builds the high-performance Mastretta MXT sports car.

1968
Moreover, the PRI rule became increasingly authoritarian and at times oppressive in what is now referred to as 'Mexico's dirty war' (see the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre, which claimed the life of around 300 protesters based on conservative estimates and as many as 800 protesters).

1968
Mexico has the capabilities to manufacture nuclear weapons, but abandoned this possibility with the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1968 and pledged to only use its nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.

1968
Mexico City hosted the XIX Olympic Games in 1968, making it the first Latin American city to do so.

Marina Michoac%C3%A1n

Reproduced from WIKI

Marina Michoac%C3%A1n

April 2010, 1970
In 1970, Mexico's national institute for nuclear research successfully refined weapons grade uranium which is used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons but in April 2010, Mexico agreed to turn over its weapons grade uranium to the United States.

1970, 1986
The country has also hosted the FIFA World Cup twice, in 1970 and 1986.

1979
A similar argument was presented by a committee of anthropologists to request the government of the Republic to expel the Summer Linguistic Institute (SIL), in the year 1979, which was accused of promoting the division of indigenous peoples by translating the Bible into vernacular languages and evangelizing in a Protestant creed that threatened the integrity of popular cultures.

1980, 1989
In the 1980s the first cracks emerged in PRI's dominance.

1980, 2000
In 1980 oil exports accounted for 61.6% of total exports; by 2000 it was only 7.3%.

Mexico Product Export Treemap

Reproduced from WIKI

Mexico Product Export Treemap

1982
Electoral reforms and high oil prices followed the administration of Luis Echeverría, mismanagement of these revenues led to inflation and exacerbated the 1982 Crisis.

1988
In 1988, alleged electoral fraud prevented the leftist candidate Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas from winning the national presidential elections, giving Carlos Salinas de Gortari the presidency and leading to massive protests in Mexico City.

1990, 1999
The government has taken another initiative in the late 1990s to broaden the people's knowledge, interest and use of the country's esteemed biodiversity, through the Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad.

1990, 1999
In addition, since the 1990s Mexico has sought a reform of the United Nations Security Council and its working methods with the support of Canada, Italy, Pakistan and other nine countries, which form a group informally called the Coffee Club.

1990, 1999
Since the 1990s, when the military escalated its role in the war on drugs, increasing importance has been placed on acquiring airborne surveillance platforms, aircraft, helicopters, digital war-fighting technologies, urban warfare equipment and rapid troop transport.

MORELOS 3

Reproduced from WIKI

MORELOS 3

1990
The telecommunications industry is mostly dominated by Telmex (Teléfonos de México), privatized in 1990.

1990, 2010
Among the achievements is a significant increase in access to piped water supply in urban areas (88% to 93%) as well as in rural areas (50% to 74%) between 1990 and 2010.

1990, 1999
Until the middle of the 1990s, the Mexican constitution did not recognize the existence of any religious group.

1990, 1999
Since the early 1990s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan.

1992, 1993, 2001, 2006
More recently, films such as Como agua para chocolate (1992), Cronos (1993), Y tu mamá también (2001), and Pan's Labyrinth (2006) have been successful in creating universal stories about contemporary subjects, and were internationally recognized, as in the prestigious Cannes Film Festival.

Inauguraci%C3%B3n de Central E%C3%B3lica Sureste I%2C Fase II

Reproduced from WIKI

Inauguraci%C3%B3n de Central E%C3%B3lica Sureste I%2C Fase II

1993
In 1993, a law was enacted whereby the State granted them legal status as "religious associations".

1994
The Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, especially the United States.

1994
In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

1994
In 1994, Salinas was succeeded by Ernesto Zedillo, followed by the Mexican peso crisis and a $50 billion IMF bailout.

1994, 2010
In addition, it was the only Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development since it joined in 1994 until Chile gained full membership in 2010.

Inauguraci%C3%B3n de la Central Geotermoel%C3%A9ctrica Azufres III%2C Fase 1. %2821526244958%29

Reproduced from WIKI

Inauguraci%C3%B3n de la Central Geotermoel%C3%A9ctrica Azufres III%2C Fase 1. %2821526244958%29

1 January 1994
Salinas embarked on a program of neoliberal reforms which fixed the exchange rate, controlled inflation, and culminated with the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into effect on January 1, 1994.

1995, 2002, 2005
GDP annual average growth for the period of 1995–2002 was 5.1%.

1995
In 1995, the Mexican chemist Mario J.

1997
A study in 1997 showed that the prevalence of domestic violence against women in Mexican marital relationships varies at between 30 and 60 percent of relationships.

1999
Major macroeconomic reforms were started by President Zedillo, and the economy rapidly recovered and growth peaked at almost 7% by the end of 1999.

Calle del centro de morelia

Reproduced from WIKI

Calle del centro de morelia

2000
In 2000, after 71 years, the PRI lost a presidential election to Vicente Fox of the opposition National Action Party (PAN).

2000, 2012, 2024, 2050
In 2012, Mexico passed a comprehensive climate change bill, a first in the developing world, that has set a goal for the country to generate 35% of its energy from clean energy sources by 2024, and to cut emissions by 50% by 2050, from the level found in 2000.

2000
More than 100 journalists and media workers have been killed or disappeared since 2000, and most of these crimes remained unsolved, improperly investigated, and with few perpetrators arrested and convicted.

2000, 2005, 2010
Between 2005 and 2010, the Mexican population grew at an average of 1.70% per year, up from 1.16% per year between 2000 and 2005.

2001
Her work, of marked oriental influence, recalls the cut paper figures of Mexico and China, mixing them with a rich chromatic range; Eliseo Garza Aguilar, painter and performer considered among the leading exponents of the provocative and reflective art of the Third Millennium; in search of a critical response from the spectators, he combines his pictorial work in the performances with theatrical histrionics; Pilar Goutas, a painter who uses oil on amate support, with strong influence from Jackson Pollock and Chinese calligraphy; Rafael Torres Correa settles his residence in Mexico in 2001 and joins the contemporary art workshop "La Polilla" in Guadalajara, and performs various plastic and scenographic projects.

Puente Baluarte%2C Mexico6

Reproduced from WIKI

Puente Baluarte%2C Mexico6

2002
In 2002, Mexico had the second fastest rate of deforestation in the world, second only to Brazil.

2003, 2009, 2010, 2011
The Mexican electronics industry grew 20% between 2010 and 2011, up from its constant growth rate of 17% between 2003 and 2009.

March 2003
Since its creation in March 2003, the National Indigenous Languages Institute has been in charge of promoting and protecting the use of the country's indigenous languages, through the General Law of Indigenous Peoples' Linguistic Rights, which recognizes them de jure as "national languages" with equal status as that of Spanish.

2004, 2006
After the slowdown of 2001 the country has recovered and has grown 4.2, 3.0 and 4.8 percent in 2004, 2005 and 2006, even though it is considered to be well below Mexico's potential growth.

2004
The remittances from Mexican citizens working in the United States account for 0.2% of Mexico's GDP which was equal to US$20 billion per year in 2004 and is the tenth largest source of foreign income after oil, industrial exports, manufactured goods, electronics, heavy industry, automobiles, construction, food, banking and financial services.

Ignacio Mar%C3%ADa Barreda - Las castas mexicanas

Reproduced from WIKI

Ignacio Mar%C3%ADa Barreda - Las castas mexicanas

2004
In 2004, the literacy rate was at 97% for youth under the age of 14 and 91% for people over 15, placing Mexico at the 24th place in the world rank according to UNESCO.

2005, 2011, 2012
After twelve years, in 2012, the PRI won the presidency again with the election of Enrique Peña Nieto, the governor of the State of Mexico from 2005 to 2011.

2005
Currently, there is over 1 million square meters of solar thermal panels installed in Mexico, while in 2005, there were 115,000 square meters of solar PV (photo-voltaic).

2005
In 2005, Mexico presented the candidature of its gastronomy for World Heritage Site of UNESCO, being the first occasion in which a country had presented its gastronomic tradition for this purpose.

2006
In the 2006 presidential election, Felipe Calderón from the PAN was declared the winner, with a very narrow margin over leftist politician Andrés Manuel López Obrador of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD).

Capilla de San Francisco Puebla

Reproduced from WIKI

Capilla de San Francisco Puebla

2006
Since President Felipe Calderón launched a crackdown against cartels in 2006, more than 28,000 alleged criminals have been successfully killed.

2006
Since late 90s, the majority of the population has been considered to be part of the growing middle class by international economic organizations but according to Mexico's National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy (CONEVAL) from 2006 to 2010 the portion of the population who lives in poverty rose from 18%-19% to 46% (52 million people).

2006
In 2006, trade with the United States and Canada accounted for almost 50% of Mexico's exports and 45% of its imports.

2006
By 2006, Telmex had expanded its operations to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay and the United States.

2006, 2010, 2014
The challenges include water scarcity in the northern and central parts of the country; inadequate water service quality (drinking water quality; 11% of Mexicans receiving water only intermittently as of 2014); poor technical and commercial efficiency of most utilities (with an average level of non-revenue water of 43.2% in 2010); an insufficient share of wastewater receiving treatment (36% in 2006); and still inadequate access in rural areas.

Mennonite Family - Campeche - Mexico - 02

Reproduced from WIKI

Mennonite Family - Campeche - Mexico - 02

October 2007
In October 2007, President Calderón and US president George W.

2008
In 2008, president Calderón proposed a major reform of the judicial system, which was approved by the Congress of the Union, which included oral trials, the presumption of innocence for defendants, the authority of local police to investigate crime—until then a prerogative of special police units—and several other changes intended to speed up trials.

2008
In 2008, Mexico contributed over 40 million dollars to the United Nations regular budget.

2008, 2009, 2010, 2014
Furthermore, after the 2008–2009 recession, the economy grew an average of 3.32 percent per year from 2010 to 2014.

2008
According to a 2008 UN report the average income in a typical urbanized area of Mexico was $26,654, while the average income in rural areas just miles away was only $8,403.

Ciudad.Mexico.City.Distrito.Federal.DF.Reforma.Skyline

Reproduced from WIKI

Ciudad.Mexico.City.Distrito.Federal.DF.Reforma.Skyline

2008
According to Mexico's central bank, remittances in 2008 amounted to $25bn.

2008, 2014
At the turn of the 21st century, several trends have increased the number of foreigners residing in the country such as the 2008–2014 Spanish financial crisis, increasing gang-related violence in the Northern Triangle of Central America, the ongoing political and economic crisis in Venezuela, and the automotive industry boom led by Japanese and South Korean investment.

2009, 2010
Thirdly find The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, whose members are known as Mormons, 2010 census reported 314,932 members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, though the church in 2009 claimed to have over one million registered members; followed by Church of the La Luz del Mundo, which has its center in "La Hermosa Provincia", a colony of Guadalajara.

2009
The National Autonomous University of Mexico ranks 190th place in the Top 200 World University Ranking published by The Times Higher Education Supplement in 2009.

2010, 2019
In the 2010s expansion of the sector was surging.

Puerta de Hierro ZM Guadalajara M%C3%A9xico

Reproduced from WIKI

Puerta de Hierro ZM Guadalajara M%C3%A9xico

2010
During the first three quarters of 2010, the United States had a $46.0 billion trade deficit with Mexico.

2010, 2017
As of 2017, it is estimated that 1.2 million foreigners have settled in the country, up from nearly 1 million in 2010.

2010
The 2010 census by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (National Institute of Statistics and Geography) gave Roman Catholicism as the main religion, with 83% of the population, while 10% (10,924,103) belong to other Christian denominations, including Evangelicals (5%); Pentecostals (1.6%); other Protestant or Reformed (0.7%); Jehovah's Witnesses (1.4%); Seventh-day Adventists (0.6%); and members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (0.3%). 172,891 (or less than 0.2% of the total) belonged to other, non-Christian religions; 4.7% declared having no religion; 2.7% were unspecified.

2010
According to the figures of INEGI, most Mexicans declare themselves Christian and most Catholics (almost 93 million adherents according to the census of 2010).

2010
In the 2010 census 18,185 Mexicans reported belonging to an Eastern religion, a category which includes a tiny Buddhist population.

DelValleCity

Reproduced from WIKI

DelValleCity

August 2010
In August 2010 Mexico surpassed France to become the 9th largest holder of US debt.

16 November 2010
Finally, on November 16 of 2010 Mexican gastronomy was recognized as Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO.

12 December 2010
The feast day of Our Lady of Guadalupe, the patron saint of Mexico, is celebrated on December 12 and is regarded by many Mexicans as the most important religious holiday of their country.

2011
Mexico is the second largest exporter of electronics to the United States where it exported $71.4 billion worth of electronics in 2011.

2012
His political coalition, led by left-wing party MORENA, which was founded after the 2012 elections by Andres, includes parties and politicians from all over the political spectrum and also obtained a majority in both the upper and lower congress chambers.

Catedral de Puebla en paisaje.

Reproduced from WIKI

Catedral de Puebla en paisaje.

2013
The project named SEGH-CFE 1, located in Puerto Libertad, Sonora, Northwest of Mexico, will have capacity of 46.8 MW from an array of 187,200 solar panels when complete in 2013.

2013
At an installed capacity of 46.8 MWp, when complete in 2013, the project will be the first utility scale project of its kind in Mexico and the largest solar project of any kind in Latin America.

2013, 2014
In 2013, Mexico's basketball team won the Americas Basketball Championship and qualified for the 2014 Basketball World Cup where it reached the playoffs.

2014
Mexico's National Geography and Statistics Institute estimated that in 2014, one-fifth of Mexicans were victims of some sort of crime.

2014
In 2014 alone, more than $10 billion in investment was committed.

Virgen de guadalupe1

Reproduced from WIKI

Virgen de guadalupe1

2014
As of 2014, Mexico has the 16th highest rate of homicides committed against women in the world.

26 September 2014
The mass kidnapping of the 43 students in Iguala on September 26, 2014 triggered a nationwide protests against the government's weak response to the disappearance and intolerance to protests.

2015
Mexico's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at US$2.2602 trillion in 2015, and $1.3673 trillion in nominal exchange rates.

2015
The Afro-Mexican population (1,381,853 individuals as of 2015) is an ethnic group made up of descendants of Colonial-era slaves and recent immigrants of sub-Saharan African descent.

2015
Evidence of this long history of intermarriage with Mestizo and indigenous Mexicans is also expressed in the fact that in the 2015 inter-census, 64.9% (896,829) of Afro-Mexicans also identified as indigenous.

The Kid - Diego Rivera

Reproduced from WIKI

The Kid - Diego Rivera

2015
Because of these achievements the country earned the hosting rights for the 2015 FIBA Americas Championship.

2016
Mexico has many tourists: in 2016, it was the eighth most-visited country in the world, with 35 million international arrivals.

2016
S. side) an element of his 2016 presidential campaign.

2016, 2025
During the 2016 North American Leaders' Summit, the target of 50% of electricity generated from renewable sources by 2025 was announced.

2016
It dropped this designation in 2016 and is in the process of achieving greater political autonomy by becoming a federal entity with its own constitution and congress.

Murales Rivera - Ausbeutung durch die Spanier 1 perspective

Reproduced from WIKI

Murales Rivera - Ausbeutung durch die Spanier 1 perspective

September 2016
In September 2016 Kia motors opened a $1 billion factory in Nuevo León, with Audi also opening an assembling plant in Puebla the same year.

2017
Daily minimum wages are set annually being set at $80.04 Mexican pesos (US$4.5) in 2017.

2017
As of 2017, Mexico was the 6th most visited country in the world and had the 15th highest income from tourism in the world which is also the highest in Latin America.

2017
In the 2017 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report, Mexico was ranked 22nd in the world, which was 3rd in the Americas.

2017
According to estimations made by Mexico's National Geography and Statistics Institute, as of 2017 Mexico has 123.5 million inhabitants making it the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.

Palacio de cortez 9

Reproduced from WIKI

Palacio de cortez 9

2017
As of 2017, it is estimated that 12.9 million Mexicans live abroad, primarily in the United States, which concentrates nearly 98% of the expatriate population.

2018
In his third presidential run, former mayor of Mexico City Andrés Manuel López Obrador won the 2018 presidential election with over 50% of the vote.

2050
Nevertheless, according to Goldman Sachs, by 2050 Mexico will have the 5th largest economy in the world.

2050
By 2050, Mexico could potentially become the world's fifth or seventh largest economy.