Timeline - Chronology of Pakistan

2014 BC
ABC News Point in 2014 also reported that the ISI was ranked as the top intelligence agency in the World while Zee News reported the ISI as ranking fifth among the world's most powerful intelligence agencies.

1947 BC, 1971
The two nations have fought at least three large-scale conventional wars in successive years in 1947, 1965, and 1971.

1765 BC
Control over the seas, greater resources, technology, and British military protection led the Company to increasingly flex its military muscle, allowing the Company to gain control over the Subcontinent by 1765 and sideline European competitors.

1500 BC
The Vedic period (1500–500 BCE) was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture; during this period the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed, and this culture later became well established in the region.

1000 BC
The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, which was founded around 1000 BCE.

600 BC, 501 BC
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, which was established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE.

Pakistan in years

Pakistan in years

519 BC, 326 BC, 185 BC
Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire (around 519 BCE), Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE.

180 BC, 165 BC, 150 BC
The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria (180–165 BCE) included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander (165–150 BCE), prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.

104, 342
Legislative: The bicameral legislature comprises a 104-member Senate (upper house) and a 342-member National Assembly (lower house).

301, 400, 401, 500
The ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was also recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE.

325, 340
In June 2008 the nuclear commercial complex was expanded with the ground work of installing and operationalising the Chashma-III and Chashma–IV reactors at Chashma, Punjab Province, each with 325–340 MWe and costing ₨ 129 billion,; from which the ₨ 80 billion came from international sources, principally China.

Pakistan in decades

Pakistan in decades

489, 632
At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty (489–632 CE) of Sindh ruled this region and the surrounding territories.

642, 1219
The Early Medieval period (642–1219 CE) witnessed the spread of Islam in the region.

650
Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast.

711
The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE.

975, 1187, 1206, 1526
These developments set the stage for the rule of several successive Muslim empires in the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187 CE), the Ghorid Kingdom, and the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE).

Pakistan in centuries

Pakistan in centuries

1101, 1200
Two Sufis whose shrines receive much national attention are Ali Hajweri in Lahore (c. 12th century) and Shahbaz Qalander in Sehwan, Sindh (c. 12th century).

14 August 1947, 1366
As the United Kingdom agreed to the partitioning of India in 1947, the modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947 (27th of Ramadan in 1366 of the Islamic Calendar), amalgamating the Muslim-majority eastern and northwestern regions of British India.

1501, 1600
In the early 16th century, the region remained under the Mughal Empire ruled by Muslim emperors.

1501, 1600
Pakistani cuisine is similar to that of other regions of South Asia, with some of it being originated from the royal kitchens of 16th-century Mughal emperors.

1526, 1857
The Lodi dynasty, the last of the Delhi Sultanate, was replaced by the Mughal Empire (1526–1857 CE).

Badshahi Masjid - Side View

Reproduced from WIKI

Badshahi Masjid - Side View

1701, 1800
By the early 18th century, increasing European influence contributed to the slow disintegration of the Mughal Empire as the lines between commercial and political dominance became increasingly blurred.

1701, 1800
The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century enabled the Sikh Empire to control larger areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.

1701, 1800
This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions such as China and Western Europe edged forward.

1801, 1900
The Pakistan government's official chronology claims this as the time when the foundation of Pakistan was laid but the concept of Pakistan came in 19th century.

1801, 1900
Before the 19th century, Pakistani literature consisted mainly of lyric and religious poetry and mystical and folkloric works. M.

Sir Syed1

Reproduced from WIKI

Sir Syed1

1820, 1829
Expanding access beyond Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of region by the 1820s.

1835
Such reforms included the enforcement of the English Education Act in 1835 and the introduction of the Indian Civil Service (ICS).

1857
A rebellion in 1857 called the Sepoy mutiny of Bengal was the region's major armed struggle against the British Empire and Queen Victoria.

1901
An intellectual movement to counter the Hindu renaissance was led by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, who helped found the All-India Muslim League in 1901 and envisioned, as well as advocated for, the two-nation theory.

1901, 2000
In the 20th century, Pakistan's nuclear deterrence program focused on countering India's nuclear ambitions in the region, and nuclear tests by India eventually led Pakistan to reciprocate to maintain a geopolitical balance as becoming a nuclear power.

Jinnah1945a

Reproduced from WIKI

Jinnah1945a

1920, 1929, 1930, 1939
The largely non-violent independence struggle led by the Indian Congress engaged millions of protesters in mass campaigns of civil disobedience in the 1920s and 1930s against the British Empire.

1930, 1939
The Muslim League slowly rose to mass popularity in the 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of British Muslims in politics.

29 December 1930
In his presidential address of 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal called for "the amalgamation of North-West Muslim-majority Indian states" consisting of Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind, and Baluchistan.

1933
The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym ("thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN") referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan.

1937, 1939, 1940
The perceived neglect of Muslim interests by Congress led British provincial governments during the period of 1937–39 convinced Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan to espouse the two-nation theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940 presented by Sher-e-Bangla A. K.

-Pakistan.ogv

Reproduced from WIKI

-Pakistan.ogv

1940, 1949, 1998
One analysis of the 1998 national census highlighted the significance of the partition of India in the 1940s as it relates to urban change in Pakistan.

1946
The 1946 elections resulted in the Muslim League winning 90 percent of the seats reserved for Muslims.

1946
Thus, the 1946 election was effectively a plebiscite in which the Indian Muslims were to vote on the creation of Pakistan, a plebiscite won by the Muslim League.

1946, 1947
As the cabinet mission failed, the British government announced its intention to end the British Rule in 1946–47.

11 September 1948, 1947
After independence in 1947, Jinnah, the President of the Muslim League, became the nation's first Governor-General as well as the first President-Speaker of the Parliament, but he died of tuberculosis on 11 September 1948.

Ayubkhanandbhutto

Reproduced from WIKI

Ayubkhanandbhutto

1947
Its geostrategic intentions were explained by Jinnah in a broadcast message in 1947, which is featured in a prominent quotation on the homepage of Pakistan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs website: "The foundation of our foreign policy is friendship with all nations across the globe."Since Independence, Pakistan has attempted to balance its relations with foreign nations.

1947
Pakistan's "premier" intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), was formed just within a year after the Independence of Pakistan in 1947.

1947
They came into existence after independence in 1947, and the military establishment has frequently influenced in the national politics ever since.

1947
Since 1947 Pakistan has been involved in four conventional wars, the first war occurred in Kashmir with Pakistan gaining control of Western Kashmir, (Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan), and India retaining Eastern Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir).

1947, 1970, 1979
From 1947 until the 1970s the train system was the primary means of transport until the nationwide constructions of the national highways and the economic boom of the automotive industry.

Friday prayes at b

Reproduced from WIKI

Friday prayes at b

1947, 2009
At the time of the partition in 1947, Pakistan had a Population of 32.5 million; the population increased by ~57.2% between the years 1990 and 2009.

1947, 1950, 1959, 1960, 1969
Even after partition in 1947, Indian Muslims continued to migrate to Pakistan throughout the 1950s and 1960s, and these migrants settled mainly in Karachi and other towns of Sindh province.

1947
Sharif and Zafar Hassan established the first major Pakistani philosophical movement in 1947.

1947
Shortly after the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the Pakistan Football Federation (PFF) was created, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah became its first Patron-in-Chief.

June 1947
Nationalists in British India—including Jawaharlal Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad of Congress, Jinnah of the All-India Muslim League, and Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs—agreed to the proposed terms of transfer of power and independence in June 1947 with the Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten of Burma.

Indus.A2002274.0610.1km

Reproduced from WIKI

Indus.A2002274.0610.1km

1948
Dispute over Jammu and Kashmir led to the First Kashmir War in 1948.

1948
In a resolution passed in 1948, the UN's General Assembly asked Pakistan to remove most of its troops as a plebiscite would then be held.

1 January 1948
India referred the dispute to the United Nations on 1 January 1948.

1949
Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, a respected Deobandi alim (scholar) who occupied the position of Shaykh al-Islam in Pakistan in 1949, and Maulana Mawdudi of Jamaat-i-Islami played a pivotal role in the demand for an Islamic constitution.

1949
However, Pakistan failed to vacate the region and a ceasefire was reached in 1949 establishing a Line of Control (LoC) that divided Kashmir between the two nations.

K2 2006b

Reproduced from WIKI

K2 2006b

1949, 1950, 1953, 1970
Very soon the Pakistan government established public universities in each of the four provinces, including Sindh University (1949), Peshawar University (1950), Karachi University (1953), and Balochistan University (1970).

March 1949
A significant result of the efforts of the Jamaat-i-Islami and the ulama was the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March 1949.

March 1949
The Objectives Resolution in March 1949, which declared God as the sole sovereign over the entire universe, represented the first formal step to transform Pakistan into an Islamic state.

1950, 1959, 1980, 1989
Because of ideological differences, Pakistan opposed the Soviet Union in the 1950s, and during the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s, Pakistan was one of the closest allies of the United States.

1950, 1959
The country is also the fifth-largest producer of cotton, with cotton production of 14 million bales from a modest beginning of 1.7 million bales in the early 1950s; is self-sufficient in sugarcane; and is the fourth-largest producer in the world of milk.

SHIGAR

Reproduced from WIKI

SHIGAR

1956
Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic.

1956, 1973
The Objectives Resolution has been incorporated as a preamble to the constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973.

1956, 1958, 1962
The first constitution was adopted in 1956 but suspended by Ayub Khan in 1958, who replaced it with the second constitution in 1962.

1958, 1971, 1977, 1988, 1999, 2008
The periods 1958–1971, 1977–1988, and 1999–2008 saw military coups that resulted in the imposition of martial law and military commanders who governed as de facto presidents.

1960, 1969, 1980, 1989
In the 1960s to 1980s, Pakistan greatly helped China in reaching out to the world's major countries and helped facilitate US President Nixon's state visit to China.

Nanga Parbat The Killer Mountain

Reproduced from WIKI

Nanga Parbat The Killer Mountain

1960, 1969, 1970, 1979
The major breakthrough in crop production took place in the late 1960s and 1970s due to the Green Revolution that made a significant contribution to land and yield increases of wheat and rice.

1960, 1969, 1970, 1979
The trail attracted thousands of Europeans and Americans in the 1960s and 1970s who travelled via land through Turkey and Iran into India through Pakistan.

1960, 1969
The 1960s saw the emergence of an active space program led by SUPARCO that produced advances in domestic rocketry, electronics, and aeronomy.

1960, 1969
In the 1960s–1970s, pop music and disco (1970s) dominated the country's music industry.

1960, 1984
Field hockey is the national sport of Pakistan; it has won three gold medals in the Olympic Games held in 1960, 1968, and 1984.

Deosai %22The Land of Giants%22

Reproduced from WIKI

Deosai %22The Land of Giants%22

1961
In 1961, the military and intelligence community repelled the Afghan incursion in the Bajaur Agency near the Durand Line border.

1962, 1967
After adopting a presidential system in 1962, the country experienced exceptional growth until a second war with India in 1965 that led to an economic downturn and wide-scale public disapproval in 1967.

1962
Pakistan was the first country to have established formal diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, and the relationship continues to be warm since China's war with India in 1962, forming a special relationship.

1965, 1971
Territorial problems eventually led to another conventional war in 1965; over the issue of Bengali refugees that led to another war in 1971 which resulted in Pakistan's unconditional surrender in East Pakistan.

1965, 2008
While Bollywood films were banned from public cinemas from 1965 until 2008, they have remained an important part of popular culture.

Medv%C4%9Bd plav%C3%BD %28Ursus arctos isabellinus%29

Reproduced from WIKI

Medv%C4%9Bd plav%C3%BD %28Ursus arctos isabellinus%29

1967, 1973
The PAF and Navy's fighter pilots have voluntarily served in Arab nations' militaries against Israel in the Six-Day War (1967) and in the Yom Kippur War (1973).

1969
Consolidating control from Ayub Khan in 1969, President Yahya Khan had to deal with a devastating cyclone that caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan.

1970
In 1970 Pakistan held its first democratic elections since independence, meant to mark a transition from military rule to democracy, but after the East Pakistani Awami League won against the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), Yahya Khan and the military establishment refused to hand over power.

1970, 1979
Pakistan's desire for an international organization of Muslim countries was fulfilled in the 1970s when the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) was formed.

1970, 1979, 2014
With its diverse cultures, people, and landscapes, Pakistan attracted around 1 million foreign tourists in 2014, contributing PKR 94.8 billion to the country's economy, which represented a significant decline since the 1970s when the country received unprecedented numbers of foreign tourists due to the popular Hippie trail.

Lightmatter snowleopard

Reproduced from WIKI

Lightmatter snowleopard

1971
An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.

1971
In the 1971 conflict over East Pakistan the Jamaat-e-Islami fought the Bengali nationalists on the Pakistan Army's side.

1971
The conflict in 1971 witnessed Pakistan's unconditional surrender and a treaty that subsequently led to the independence of Bangladesh.

1971
The KANUPP-I, a Candu-type nuclear reactor, was supplied by Canada in 1971—the country's first commercial nuclear power plant.

1971
As an aftermath of the 1971 war with India, the clandestine crash program developed atomic weapons partly motivated by fear and to prevent any foreign intervention, while ushering in the atomic age in the post cold war era.

Parliament House%2C <a style="color:blue" href="https://www.lahistoriaconmapas.com/timelines/countries/timeline-chronology-Islamabad.html">Islamabad</a> by Usman Ghani

Reproduced from WIKI

Parliament House%2C Islamabad by Usman Ghani

1971
After the 1971 war, philosophers such as Jalaludin Abdur Rahim, Gianchandani, and Malik Khalid incorporated Marxism into Pakistan's philosophical thinking.

1971, 1994
Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup a record four times, held in 1971, 1978, 1982, and 1994.

1972, 1977
Democratic rule resumed from 1972 to 1977—an era of self-consciousness, intellectual leftism, nationalism, and nationwide reconstruction.

1972
In 1972 Pakistan embarked on an ambitious plan to develop its nuclear deterrence capability with the goal of preventing any foreign invasion; the country's first nuclear power plant was inaugurated in that same year.

1972
This was confirmed in a statement by India's Defense Minister, Krishna Menon, who said: "Kashmir would vote to join Pakistan and no Indian Government responsible for agreeing to plebiscite would survive."Pakistan claims that its position is for the right of the people of Jammu and Kashmir to determine their future through impartial elections as mandated by the United Nations, while India has stated that Kashmir is an integral part of India, referring to the Simla Agreement (1972) and to the fact that elections take place regularly.

A night side view of Prime Minister%27s Secretariat Building

Reproduced from WIKI

A night side view of Prime Minister%27s Secretariat Building

1973
In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah.

1973
After Pakistan's first ever general elections the 1973 Constitution was created by an elected Parliament.

1973
The 1973 Constitution also created certain institutions such as the Shariat Court and the Council of Islamic Ideology to channel the interpretation and application of Islam.

1973, 1977, 1985
A complete and comprehensive constitution was adopted in 1973—it was suspended by Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 but reinstated in 1985—is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of the current government.

1973
In the 1973 war one of the PAF pilots, Flt. Lt.

Supreme Court of Pakistan%2C Islamabad by Usman Ghani

Reproduced from WIKI

Supreme Court of Pakistan%2C Islamabad by Usman Ghani

1974, 1979
Accelerated in response to India's first nuclear test in 1974, this crash program was completed in 1979.

1974
The Ahmadis are particularly persecuted, especially since 1974 when they were banned from calling themselves Muslims.

1976, 2001
He founded and established the Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1976, serving as both its senior scientist and the Director-General until his retirement in 2001, and he was an early and vital figure in other science projects.

1977, 1978
Democracy ended with a military coup in 1977 against the leftist PPP, which saw General Zia-ul-Haq become the president in 1978.

1977, 1988
From 1977 to 1988, President Zia's corporatisation and economic Islamisation initiatives led to Pakistan becoming one of the fastest-growing economies in South Asia.

Motorcade in Arrival Ceremonies for Muhammad Ayub Khan%2C President of Pakistan use

Reproduced from WIKI

Motorcade in Arrival Ceremonies for Muhammad Ayub Khan%2C President of Pakistan use

1977
In 1977 after taking power from Bhutto in a coup de'tat, General Zia-ul-Haq, who came from a religious background, committed himself to establishing an Islamic state and enforcing sharia law.

1979
Requested by the Saudi monarchy in 1979, Pakistan's special forces units, operatives, and commandos were rushed to assist Saudi forces in Mecca to lead the operation of the Grand Mosque.

1980, 1989
The PPP was followed by conservative Pakistan Muslim League (N), and over the next decade the leaders of the two parties fought for power, alternating in office while the country's situation worsened; economic indicators fell sharply, in contrast to the 1980s.

1980, 1989
The Sino-Pakistani nuclear cooperation began in the early 1980s.

1980, 1989, 1990, 1999
The wars in neighboring Afghanistan during the 1980s and 1990s also forced millions of Afghan refugees into Pakistan.

Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan in <a style="color:blue" href="https://www.lahistoriaconmapas.com/timelines/countries/timeline-chronology-Beijing.html">Beijing</a>

Reproduced from WIKI

Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan in Beijing

1980, 1989, 1998
Experts say that the migration of both Bengalis and Burmese (Rohingya) to Pakistan started in the 1980s and continued until 1998.

1980, 1989
In the 1980s–1990s, British influenced rock music appeared and jolted the country's entertainment industry.

1984, 1999
Other serious military engagements and skirmishes have included the armed contacts in Siachen Glacier (1984) and Kargil (1999).

1984
In 1984, Ahmadiyya places of worship were banned from being called "mosques".

1984, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1996, 2003, 2004
Pakistan has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the 1989 and 2004 South Asian Games; the 1984, 1993, 1996 and 2003 World Squash Championships; the 1987 and 1996 Cricket World Cup; and the 1990 Hockey World Cup.

Kashmir map

Reproduced from WIKI

Kashmir map

1986
After a Sino-Pakistani nuclear cooperation agreement in 1986, China provided Pakistan with a nuclear reactor dubbed CHASNUPP-I for energy and industrial growth of the country.

1988
President Zia died in a plane crash in 1988, and Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the country's first female Prime Minister.

1990, 1999
A close ally of the United States during the Cold war, Pakistan's relationship with the United States soured in the 1990s when the US imposed sanctions because of Pakistan's secretive nuclear development.

1990, 1999
Iran and Saudi Arabia used Pakistan as a battleground for their proxy sectarian war, and by the 1990s Pakistan's support for the Sunni Taliban organisation in Afghanistan became a problem for Shia Iran, which opposed a Taliban-controlled Afghanistan.

1990, 1999
Beginning in the 1990s there was a marked shift in traffic from rail to highways; dependence grew on roads after the introduction of vehicles in the country.

Kashmir 3

Reproduced from WIKI

Kashmir 3

1990, 1991, 2011
As personal transportation began to be dominated by the automobile, total rail track decreased from 8,775 kilometres (5,453 miles) in 1990–91 to 7,791 kilometres (4,841 miles) in 2011.

1990, 1999
Since the 1990s some seaport operations have been moved to Balochistan with the construction of Gwadar Port and Gadani Port.

1990
Successfully producing and launching the nation's first space satellite in 1990, Pakistan became the first Muslim country and second South Asian country to put a satellite into space.

1990, 1999, 2013
Energy consumption by computers and usage has grown since the 1990s when PCs were introduced; Pakistan has about 30 million Internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in Internet penetration as of 2013.

1990, 2008, 2013
During 1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36% of Pakistan's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia, which increased to 38% by 2013.

Pakistan Air Force JF-17 Thunder flies in front of the 26%2C660 ft high Nanga Parbat

Reproduced from WIKI

Pakistan Air Force JF-17 Thunder flies in front of the 26%2C660 ft high Nanga Parbat

1990, 2008
During the period 1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36.0% of Pakistan's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia.

1990, 1999
Urdu dramas dominate the television entertainment industry, which has launched critically acclaimed miniseries and featured popular actors and actresses since the 1990s.

1991
In 1991 Pakistan got involved with the Gulf War and sent 5,000 troops as part of a US-led coalition, specifically for the defence of Saudi Arabia.

1991
Since 1991 Pakistan has maintained two summer research stations and one weather observatory on the Continent and plans to open another full-fledged permanent base in Antarctica.

1992, 1999
The cricket team (known as Shaheen) won the Cricket World Cup held in 1992; it was runner-up once, in 1999.

Pakistan Chrome Mines20120126 16100237 0003

Reproduced from WIKI

Pakistan Chrome Mines20120126 16100237 0003

1993
It played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu, Somalia, in 1993 in Operation Gothic Serpent.

1993
The civil aviation industry is mixed with public and private sectors, which was deregulated in 1993.

1995, 1998
With the advent of computer literacy in 1995, the government launched a nationwide initiative in 1998 with the aim of eradicating illiteracy and providing a basic education to all children.

May 1998, 1997
As PML(N) secured a supermajority in elections in 1997, Sharif authorised nuclear testings (See:Chagai-I and Chagai-II), as a retaliation to the second nuclear tests ordered by India, led by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in May 1998.

1998
Tensions between Iran and Pakistan intensified in 1998 when Iran accused Pakistan of war crimes after Pakistani warplanes had bombarded Afghanistan's last Shia stronghold in support of the Taliban.

Tv Assembly Line 1

Reproduced from WIKI

Tv Assembly Line 1

1998
Competition with India and tensions eventually led to Pakistan's decision to conduct underground nuclear tests in 1998, thus becoming the seventh country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons.

1998
According to the 1998 census, people who did not state their religion accounted for 0.5% of the population.

1998
Hinduism is the second-largest religion in Pakistan after Islam, according to the 1998 census.

1998
In the 1998 census the Hindu (jati) population was found to be 2,111,271 while the Hindu (scheduled castes) numbered an additional 332,343.

1998
Christians formed the next largest religious minority, after Hindus, with a population of 2,092,902, according to the 1998 census.

View of Karachi%2C Pakistan

Reproduced from WIKI

View of Karachi%2C Pakistan

1999
Military tension between the two countries in the Kargil district led to the Kargil War of 1999, and turmoil in civic-military relations allowed General Pervez Musharraf to take over through a bloodless coup d'état.

1999, 2001, 2008
Musharraf governed Pakistan as chief executive from 1999 to 2001 and as President from 2001 to 2008—a period of enlightenment, social liberalism, extensive economic reforms, and direct involvement in the US-led war on terrorism.

1999
Relations between Pakistan and Russia have greatly improved since 1999, and co-operation in various sectors has increased.

2000, 2009
Both countries signed a Free Trade Agreement in the 2000s, and Pakistan continues to serve as China's communication bridge to the Muslim world.

2000, 2009
The early to middle 2000s was a period of rapid economic reforms; the government raised development spending, which reduced poverty levels by 10% and increased GDP by 3%.

Tarbela Dam during the 2010 floods

Reproduced from WIKI

Tarbela Dam during the 2010 floods

2000, 2009
Since the 2000s Pakistan has made a significant amount of progress in supercomputing, and various institutions offer research opportunities in parallel computing.

2000, 2009
In the 2000s, heavy metal music gained popular and critical acclaim.

2004
It is also a major non-NATO ally of the United States in the war against terrorism—a status achieved in 2004.

2004
Briefing on the country's foreign policy in 2004, a Pakistani senator reportedly explained: "Pakistan highlights sovereign equality of states, bilateralism, mutuality of interests, and non-interference in each other's domestic affairs as the cardinal features of its foreign policy." Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations and has a Permanent Representative to represent Pakistan's positions in international politics.

September 2004
The Overseas Pakistani Division (OPD) was created in September 2004 within the Ministry of Labour (MoL).

Jhimpir Wind Farm 2012

Reproduced from WIKI

Jhimpir Wind Farm 2012

2005
Even so, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Pakistan produced 21,591,400 metric tons of wheat in 2005, more than all of Africa (20,304,585 metric tons) and nearly as much as all of South America (24,557,784 metric tons).

2005, 2006, 2012, 2013
The country has also improved its export performance in telecom, computer and information services, as the share of their exports surged from 8.2pc in 2005–06 to 12.6pc in 2012–13.

2005, 2030
In 2005 both countries proposed working on a joint energy security plan, calling for a huge increase in generation capacity to more than 160,000 MWe by 2030.

October 2006, 2005
In October 2006, just one year after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, The Guardian released what it described as "The top five tourist sites in Pakistan" in order to help the country's tourism industry.

2005
Pakistani Hindus faced riots after the Babri Masjid demolition, endured a massacre (in 2005) by security forces in Balochistan, and have experienced other attacks, forced conversions, and abductions.

Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro-108221

Reproduced from WIKI

Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro-108221

2005
The influence of atheism is very small, with 1.0% of the population identifying as atheist in 2005.

2007, 2008
After the assassination of Benazir Bhutto in 2007, the PPP secured the most votes in the elections of 2008, appointing party member Yousaf Raza Gillani as Prime Minister.

2007
The economy cooled again from 2007.

2007
According to the World Trade Organization, Pakistan's share of overall world exports is declining; it contributed only 0.128% in 2007.

2007, 2016
According to the WEF's Global Competitiveness Report, quality ratings of Pakistan's port infrastructure increased from 3.7 to 4.1 between 2007 and 2016.

Badshahi Mosque 3

Reproduced from WIKI

Badshahi Mosque 3

2007
As a result of initiatives taken in 2007, the English medium education has been made compulsory in all schools across the country.

2007, 2009
Pakistan was runner-up in the inaugural World Twenty20 (2007) in South Africa and won the World Twenty20 in England in 2009.

15 November 2007
When the National Assembly historically completed its first full five-year term on 15 November 2007, the new elections were called by the Election Commission.

2008
Inflation reached 25.0% in 2008, and Pakistan had to depend on a fiscal policy backed by the International Monetary Fund to avoid possible bankruptcy.

2008
The Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis was established in 2008 to deal exclusively with all matters of overseas Pakistanis such as attending to their needs and problems, developing projects for their welfare, and working for resolution of their problems and issues.

Darawar Fort

Reproduced from WIKI

Darawar Fort

18 August 2008
Threatened with impeachment, President Musharraf resigned on 18 August 2008, and was succeeded by Asif Ali Zardari.

October 2008
A further agreement for China's help with the project was signed in October 2008, and given prominence as a counter to the US–India agreement that shortly preceded it.

2009
In 2009, the constitutional assignment (the Gilgit–Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order) awarded the Gilgit–Baltistan a semi-provincial status, giving it self-government.

2009
Rough accounts from 2009 indicate that the Punjabis dominate with 78.7 million (~45%) while the Pashtuns are the second-largest group with ~29.3 million (15.42%).

2009, 2010, 2015, 2016
Over the last several years, home remittances have maintained a steadily rising trend, with a more than 100% increase from US$8.9 billion in 2009–10 to US$19.9 billion in 2015–16.

Aqua Ambulance

Reproduced from WIKI

Aqua Ambulance

March 2009, May 2015
In March 2009, militants attacked the touring Sri Lankan cricket team, after which no international cricket was played in Pakistan until May 2015, when the Zimbabwean team agreed to a tour.

November 2009
Pakistan's first fashion week was held in November 2009.

2010
About 2.2% or 1,687,000 hectares (16,870 km2) of Pakistan was forested in 2010.

2010
The armed forces of Pakistan are the eighth largest in the world in terms of numbers in full-time service, with about 617,000 personnel on active duty and 513,000 reservists, as of tentative estimates in 2010.

2010, 2011
The inflation rate for the fiscal year 2010–11 was 14.1%.

PIA rendezvous-edit

Reproduced from WIKI

PIA rendezvous-edit

2010
In 2010 Pakistan was ranked 43rd in the world in terms of published scientific papers.

2010, 2016
Pakistan is classified as a "young nation", with a median age of 23.4 in 2016; about 104 million people were under the age of 30 in 2010.

2010
As of 2010, Pakistan had the fifth-largest Hindu population in the world.

2011
Pakistan's ISI was ranked as the top intelligence agency in the world in 2011 by the International Business Times UK.

2012, 2016
According to SIPRI, Pakistan was the 9th largest recipient and importer of arms between 2012–2016.

Abdus Salam 1987

Reproduced from WIKI

Abdus Salam 1987

2012, 2013
In 2012 and 2013, the cement industry in Pakistan became the most profitable sector of the economy.

2012
In 2012, Pakistani textile products accounted for 3.3% or US$1.07bn of all UK textile imports, 12.4% or $4.61bn of total Chinese textile imports, 2.98% or $2.98b of all US textile imports, 1.6% or $0.88bn of total German textile imports and 0.7% or $0.888bn of total Indian textile imports.

2012
Mortality of the under-fives was 86 per 1,000 live births in 2012.

2012
A PEW survey in 2012 found that only 6% of Pakistani Muslims were Shia.

2012
As of 2012, 12% of Pakistani Muslims self-identify as non-denominational Muslims.

Atta-Ur-Rahman %28cropped%29

Reproduced from WIKI

Atta-Ur-Rahman %28cropped%29

2012
However, the figure rose to 2.0% in 2012 according to Gallup.

June 2012
Clashes with the judicature prompted Gillani's disqualification from the Parliament and as the Prime Minister in June 2012.

2013
The general election held in 2013 saw the PML(N) almost achieve a supermajority, following which Nawaz Sharif was elected as the Prime Minister, returning to the post for the third time in fourteen years, in a democratic transition.

2013
As of the general elections held in 2013, the three main political parties in the country are: the centre-right conservative Pakistan Muslim League-N; the centre-left socialist PPP; and the centrist and third-way Pakistan Movement for Justice (PTI).

2013
In recent years, after decades of social instability, as of 2013, serious deficiencies in macromanagement and unbalanced macroeconomics in basic services such as rail transportation and electrical energy generation have developed.

Mahbub-ul-Haq

Reproduced from WIKI

Mahbub-ul-Haq

2013
Since 2013, as part of an International Monetary Fund program, Pakistan's economic growth has picked up.

2013
In 2013 Pakistan exported 7,708,557 metric tons of cement.

2013
In 2013 Pakistan established a second commercial nuclear complex in Karachi with plans of additional reactors, similar to the one in Chashma.

2013
Additional reforms enacted in 2013 required all educational institutions in Sindh to begin offering Chinese language courses, reflecting China's growing role as a superpower and its increasing influence in Pakistan.

2013
Expenditure on healthcare was ~2.8% of GDP in 2013.

Government College University

Reproduced from WIKI

Government College University

2013
Life expectancy at birth was 67 years for females and 65 years for males in 2013.

May 2013
The first successful democratic transition occurred in May 2013.

2014, 2050
In 2014 Goldman Sachs predicted that Pakistan's economy would grow 15 times in the next 35 years to become the 18th-largest economy in the world by 2050.

2014
Services sector accounts for 54 percent of GDP in 2014 and little over one-third of total employment.

2014
As of 2014 Pakistan has an installed electricity generation capacity of ~22,797MWt.

Kalash women traditional clothing

Reproduced from WIKI

Kalash women traditional clothing

2015
Sino-Pakistani friendly relations touched new heights as both the countries signed 51 agreements and Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs) in 2015 for co-operation in different areas.

2015, 2016
During the fiscal year 2015–16, Pakistan's exports stood at US$20.81 billion and imports at US$44.76 billion, resulting in a negative trade balance of US$23.96 billion.

2015
A 2015 report published by the World Bank ranked Pakistan's economy at 24th-largest in the world by purchasing power and 41st-largest in absolute terms.

2015, 2016
The 7-million–strong Pakistani diaspora contributed US$19.9 billion to the economy in 2015–16.

2015
Agriculture as of 2015 accounts for only 20.9% of the GDP.

KHIURBANSKYLINE

Reproduced from WIKI

KHIURBANSKYLINE

2016
In 2016 China announced that it will set up an anti-terrorism alliance with Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.

2016
As of 2016 Pakistan's estimated nominal GDP is US$271 billion.

2016, 2020
In his 2016 book, The Rise and Fall of Nations, Ruchir Sharma termed Pakistan's economy as at a 'take-off' stage and the future outlook until 2020 has been termed 'Very Good'.

2016
As of 2016, Pakistan has over 35 million Internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in Internet penetration.

2016
By the end of 2016, nuclear power was provided by four licensed commercial nuclear power plants.

Badshahi Mosquee%2C Lahore

Reproduced from WIKI

Badshahi Mosquee%2C Lahore

2016
Noted as the sixth most populated country in the world, its growth rate in 2016 was reported to be 1.45%, which is the highest of the SAARC nations, though this growth rate has been decreasing in recent years.

2016
In 2016 Pakistan's fertility rate was estimated to be 2.68, higher than its neighbour India (2.45).

2016
A 2016 report by the Reporters Without Borders ranked Pakistan 147th on the Press Freedom Index, while at the same time terming the Pakistani media "among the freest in Asia when it comes to covering the squabbling among politicians." BBC calls the Pakistani media "among the most outspoken in South Asia".

2016
The largest inflow of remittances, as of 2016, is from Saudi Arabia, amounting to $5.9 billion.

2017
According to Provisional results of 2017 Census in Pakistan, the total population in Pakistan was 207.8 million, representing a 57% increase in 19 years. which is equivalent to 2.57% of the world population.

Clock Tower Faisalabad by Usman Nadeem

Reproduced from WIKI

Clock Tower Faisalabad by Usman Nadeem

2017
Pakistan also won the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy by defeating arch-rivals India in the final.

2018
In 2018, Imran Khan (the chairman of PTI) won the Pakistan general election, 2018 with 116 general seats and became the 22nd Prime Minister of Pakistan in election of National Assembly of Pakistan for Prime Minister by getting 176 votes against Shehbaz Sharif (the chairman of PMLN) who got 96 votes.

2018
As of 2018, the CJCSC is General Zubair Hayat alongside chief of army staff General Qamar Javed Bajwa, chief of naval staff Admiral Muhammad Zaka, and chief of air staff Air Chief Marshal Mujahid Anwar Khan.

2020
The current growth rate and employment trend indicate that Pakistan's Information Communication Technology (ICT) industry will exceed the $10-billion mark by 2020.

2020
The population is projected to reach 210.13 million by 2020.

Faisal Masjid

Reproduced from WIKI

Faisal Masjid

2030
Under its Nuclear Energy Vision 2050, the Pakistani government plans to increase nuclear power generation capacity to 40,000 MWe, 8,900 MWe of it by 2030.

2030
By 2030 Pakistan is expected to surpass Indonesia as the largest Muslim-majority country in the world.

2050
Pakistan has an estimated 40 million middle class citizens, projected to increase to 100 million by 2050.