Timeline - Chronology of Spain

350 BC
Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c. 350 BCE.

210 BC, 205 BC
During the Second Punic War, roughly between 210 and 205 BC the expanding Roman Republic captured Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast.

200 BC
Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania.

100, 199
Christianity was introduced into Hispania in the 1st century AD and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century AD.

133
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46,000 adherents in 133 congregations in all regions of the country and has a temple in the Moratalaz District of Madrid.

October 2010, 190, 300
As of October 2010, Spain has a total of 3,500 km (2,174.80 mi) of high-speed tracks linking Málaga, Seville, Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Valladolid, with the trains reaching speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph).

Spain in years

Spain in years

235
Spain's Population density, at 91/km² (235/sq mi), is lower than that of most Western European countries and its distribution across the country is very unequal.

259, 350
The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados) with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate (Senado) with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.

700, 711, 718, 799
In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered (711–718) by largely Moorish Muslim armies from North Africa.

739
Shortly after, in 739, Muslim forces were driven from Galicia, which was to eventually host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela and was incorporated into the new Christian kingdom.

760, 769
Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers, Frankia and pushed out of the very southernmost region of France along the seacoast by the 760s.

Spain in decades

Spain in decades

781, 1469, 1478, 1492
In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. 1478 commenced the completion of the conquest of the Canary Islands and in 1492, the combined forces of Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada from its last ruler Muhammad XII, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia.

800, 899
In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north, lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada.

900, 999
The muladíes (Muslims of ethnic Iberian origin) are believed to have comprised the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century.

1000, 1099
In the 11th century, the Muslim holdings fractured into rival Taifa states (Arab, Berber, and Slav), allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories.

7 July 1000, 14 July 1000
While its most famous event is the encierro, or the running of the bulls, which happens at 8:00 am from 7 to 14 July, the week-long celebration involves many other traditional and folkloric events.

Spain in centuries

Spain in centuries

12 October 1000
Spain's National Day (Fiesta Nacional de España) is 12 October, the anniversary of the Discovery of America and commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar feast, patroness of Aragon and throughout Spain.

1085
The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms.

1100, 1199, 1200, 1236, 1248, 1299
Following a great Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian Spain in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248.

1100, 1199, 1200, 1299
The Toledo School of Translators is the name that commonly describes the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic, Ancient Greek, and Ancient Hebrew.

1100, 1199, 1600, 1699
The Mudéjar style, from the 12th to 17th centuries, was developed by introducing Arab style motifs, patterns and elements into European architecture.

Dama de Elche %28M.A.N. Madrid%29 01

Reproduced from WIKI

Dama de Elche %28M.A.N. Madrid%29 01

1200, 1299, 1300, 1399
In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Marinid dynasty of Morocco invaded and established some enclaves on the southern coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish North African rule in Iberia and were soon driven out.

1200, 1299
From the mid 13th century, literature and philosophy started to flourish again in the Christian peninsular kingdoms, based on Roman and Gothic traditions.

1200, 1299
The 13th century also witnessed the Crown of Aragon, centred in Spain's north east, expand its reach across islands in the Mediterranean, to Sicily and Naples.

1212, 1218, 1254, 1263
Around this time the universities of Palencia (1212/1263) and Salamanca (1218/1254) were established.

1229, 1238
In 1229 Majorca was conquered, so was Valencia in 1238.

Reproduction cave of Altamira 02

Reproduced from WIKI

Reproduction cave of Altamira 02

1300, 1399
There were mass killings in Aragon in the mid-14th century, and 12,000 Jews were killed in Toledo.

1311
Having conquered these, they turned their arms against the Byzantines, who treacherously slew their leaders; but for this treachery the Spaniards, under Bernard of Rocafort and Berenguer of Entenca, exacted the terrible penalty celebrated in history as "The Catalan Vengeance" and moreover seized the Duchy of Athens (1311).

1348, 1349
The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 devastated Spain.

1391
In 1391, Christian mobs went from town to town throughout Castile and Aragon, killing an estimated 50,000 Jews.

1391
However the Jewish Encyclopedia states the number over 800,000 to be too large and 235,000 as too small: 165,000 is given as expelled as possibly too small in favour or 200,000, and the numbers of converts after the 1391 pogroms as less.

2014 Castro de Santa Trega. Galiza-2

Reproduced from WIKI

2014 Castro de Santa Trega. Galiza-2

1391
Other sources suggest 200,000 converts mostly after the pogroms of 1391 and upwards of 100,000 expelled.

1400, 1499
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs.

1400, 1499
Two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric.

1400, 1499
Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America and at present most white Latin Americans (who make up about one-third of Latin America's population) are of Spanish or Portuguese origin.

1413, 1414
Vincent Ferrer converted innumerable Jews, among them the Rabbi Josuah Halorqui, who took the name of Jerónimo de Santa Fe and in his town converted many of his former coreligionists in the famous Disputation of Tortosa (1413–14).

Teatro de M%C3%A9rida%2C Espa%C3%B1a%2C 2017 18

Reproduced from WIKI

Teatro de M%C3%A9rida%2C Espa%C3%B1a%2C 2017 18

1492
After 800 years of Muslim presence in Spain, the last Nasrid sultanate of Granada, a tributary state would finally surrender in 1492 to the Catholic monarchs Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.

1492
The year 1492 also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World, during a voyage funded by Isabella.

1492, 1831, 1832
The estimate between 1492-1832 is 1.86 million.

1492
After the Reconquista in 1492, Muslims did not live in Spain for centuries.

1492, 1800, 1899
Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country.

Alcazar of Toledo - Toledo%2C Spain - Dec 2006

Reproduced from WIKI

Alcazar of Toledo - Toledo%2C Spain - Dec 2006

1492
The descendants of these Sephardic Jews expelled in 1492 are given the Spanish nationality if they request so.

1493, 1497
This was followed by expulsions in 1493 in Aragonese Sicily and Portugal in 1497.

1500, 1599, 1600, 1699
Habsburg Spain was Europe's leading power throughout the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions and became the world's leading maritime power.

1500, 1571, 1585, 1588, 1599, 1604
Spain's 16th century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571, and then after the setback of the Spanish Armada in 1588, in a series of victories against England in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604.

1500, 1599
Around 240,000 Spaniards emigrated in the 16th century, mostly to Peru and Mexico.

Concil Toled

Reproduced from WIKI

Concil Toled

1500, 1599
The arrival of the gitanos, a Romani people, began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Roma population range from 750,000 to over one million.

1500, 1599
The Plateresque style extended from beginnings of the 16th century until the last third of the century and its stylistic influence pervaded the works of all great Spanish artists of the time.

1502, 1527
The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance towards Muslims, for a few years before Islam was outlawed in 1502 in the Kingdom of Castile and 1527 in the Kingdom of Aragon, leading to Spain's Muslim population becoming nominally Christian Moriscos.

1516, 1556, 1598
It reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish Habsburgs—Charles I (1516–1556) and Philip II (1556–1598).

1519, 1521
The first circumnavigation of the World was carried out in 1519–1521.

Mort de Roland

Reproduced from WIKI

Mort de Roland

1600, 1660, 1669, 1699
However, during the middle decades of the 17th century Spain's maritime power went into a long decline with mounting defeats against the United Provinces and then England; that by the 1660s it was struggling grimly to defend its overseas possessions from pirates and privateers.

1600, 1699
By the middle decades of a war- and plague-ridden 17th-century Europe, the Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in continent-wide religious-political conflicts.

1600, 1699, 1800, 1899
In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual decline, during which it surrendered several small territories to France and England; however, it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century.

1600, 1699
Another 450,000 left in the 17th century.

1609, 1614
From 1609–14, over 300,000 Moriscos were sent on ships to North Africa and other locations, and, of this figure, around 50,000 died resisting the expulsion, and 60,000 died on the journey.

Cordoba sal

Reproduced from WIKI

Cordoba sal

1700, 1799
The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century.

1700, 1799
The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire.

1702, 1713, 1739, 1740, 1742, 1748, 1756, 1763, 1779, 1783, 1800, 1899
Spain needed every hand it could take during the seemingly endless wars of the eighteenth century—the Spanish War of Succession or Queen Anne's War (1702–13), the War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–42) which became the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), the Seven Years' War (1756–63) and the Anglo-Spanish War (1779–83)—and its new disciplined militias served around the Atlantic as needed.

1704
Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles, pretender to the Spanish throne.

1713
The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht, in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first.

Leon %28San Isidoro%2C pante%C3%B3n%29

Reproduced from WIKI

Leon %28San Isidoro%2C pante%C3%B3n%29

1793
In 1793, Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition.

1795
The subsequent War of the Pyrenees polarised the country in a reaction against the gallicised elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in 1795 at the Peace of Basel in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the Island of Hispaniola.

1800, 1899
In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba.

1800, 1899, 1900, 1999
In the 19th and 20th centuries science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment.

1800, 1899
Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara full citizenship.

Ofensivas Tovar-Vienne contra Inglaterra 01

Reproduced from WIKI

Ofensivas Tovar-Vienne contra Inglaterra 01

1801, 1815
Besides the Perejil Island, the Spanish-held territories claimed by other countries are two: Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the plazas de soberanía islets off the northern coast of Africa; and Portugal and the other signatories of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and their successor states do not recognise Spain's Sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza in the Alentejo region of Portugal which was annexed by Spain in 1801 after the War of the Oranges.

1805
The Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy, then ensured that Spain allied herself with France in the brief War of the Third Coalition which ended with the British victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

1807
In 1807, a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal.

2 May 1808
The 2 May 1808 revolt was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime.

1809
Starting in 1809 Spain's American colonies began a series of revolutions and declared independence, leading to the Spanish American wars of independence that ended Spanish control over its mainland colonies in the Americas.

Libro de los Juegos%2C Alfonso X y su corte

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Libro de los Juegos%2C Alfonso X y su corte

1810
During the war, in 1810, a revolutionary body, the Cortes of Cádiz, was assembled to co-ordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime and to prepare a constitution.

1812
In 1812, a constitution for universal representation under a constitutional monarchy was declared, but after the fall of the Bonapartist regime, Ferdinand VII dismissed the Cortes Generales and was determined to rule as an absolute monarch.

1812
The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of 1812.

1814
However, further military action by Spanish armies, guerrillas and Wellington's British-Portuguese forces, combined with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia, led to the ousting of the French imperial armies from Spain in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII.

1826
By the end of 1826, the only American colonies Spain held were Cuba and Puerto Rico.

Retrato de Hern%C3%A1n Cort%C3%A9s

Reproduced from WIKI

Retrato de Hern%C3%A1n Cort%C3%A9s

1830, 1839, 1840, 1849
In the 1830s and 1840s Anti-liberal forces known as Carlists fought against liberals in the Carlist Wars.

1833
The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the 1833 territorial division by Javier de Burgos, and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces.

1846, 1932
Between 1846 and 1932 it is estimated that nearly 5 million Spaniards emigrated to the Americas, especially to Argentina and Brazil.

1868
After the Glorious Revolution of 1868 and the short-lived First Spanish Republic, a more stable monarchic period began characterised by the practice of turnismo (the rotation of government control between progressive and conservative liberals within the Spanish government).

1876, 1936
Institución Libre de Enseñanza was an educational project that developed in Spain for the half a century of about 1876–1936 by Francisco Giner de los Ríos and Gumersindo de Azcárate.

Portrait of Francisco Pizarro

Reproduced from WIKI

Portrait of Francisco Pizarro

1880, 2000
In the period 1880-2000 more than half of the years have been qualified as dry or very dry.

1895
In 1895 and 1896 the Cuban War of Independence and the Philippine Revolution broke out and eventually the United States became involved.

1898
The Spanish–American War was fought in the spring of 1898 and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa.

1898
The group that has become known as the Generation of 1898 was marked by the destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by US gunboats in 1898, which provoked a cultural crisis in Spain.

1898
The "Disaster" of 1898 led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of Regeneracionismo.

Do%C3%B1a Mar%C3%ADa Pacheco despu%C3%A9s de Villalar %28Museo del Prado%29

Reproduced from WIKI

Do%C3%B1a Mar%C3%ADa Pacheco despu%C3%A9s de Villalar %28Museo del Prado%29

1898
All were scholars of their national literary heritage, again evidence of the impact of the calls of regeneracionistas and the Generation of 1898 for Spanish intelligence to turn at least partially inwards.

1900, 1999
These events foreshadowed the conflict between conservatives and liberals in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

1900, 1999
Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa, with the colonisation of Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea.

1900, 1960, 1969, 1970, 1979
The population of Spain has risen 2 1/2 times since 1900, when it stood at 18.6 million, principally due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s.

1900, 1999
The two main writers in the second half of the 20th century were the Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Camilo José Cela and Miguel Delibes from Generation of '36.

La familia de Felipe V %28Van Loo%29

Reproduced from WIKI

La familia de Felipe V %28Van Loo%29

1900, 1999
In the first half of the 20th century the most prominent philosophers are Maria Zambrano and José Ortega y Gasset.

1900, 1999
In the 20th century the most important Spanish sculptors were Julio González, Pablo Gargallo, Eduardo Chillida, and Pablo Serrano.

1900, 1999
The arrival of Modernism in the academic arena produced much of the architecture of the 20th century.

1900, 1999
While varieties of football had been played in Spain as far back as Roman times, sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century.

1914
The Generation of 1914 or Novecentismo.

El Tres de Mayo%2C by Francisco de Goya%2C from Prado in Google <a style="color:blue" href="https://www.lahistoriaconmapas.com/timelines/countries/timeline-chronology-Earth.html">Earth</a>

Reproduced from WIKI

El Tres de Mayo%2C by Francisco de Goya%2C from Prado in Google Earth

1914
By the year 1914—the year of the outbreak of the First World War and of the publication of the first major work of the generation's leading voice, José Ortega y Gasset—a number of slightly younger writers had established their own place within the Spanish cultural field.

12 April 1931, 1923
After a period of authoritarian rule under General Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923–1931), the king determined to seek a solution to the political situation and establish the Constitution, the king led the municipal elections on 12 April 1931.

1927
The Generation of 1927, where poets Pedro Salinas, Jorge Guillén, Federico García Lorca, Vicente Aleixandre, Dámaso Alonso.

14 April 1931
The organised demonstrations demanding the establishment of a democratic republic led the king to leave the country and the proclamation of the same on 14 April of that same year.

1934
The violent acts during this period included the burning of churches, the monarchical uprising of the militar José Sanjurjo, the Revolution of 1934 and numerous attacks against rival political leaders.

Cortes de cadiz

Reproduced from WIKI

Cortes de cadiz

1936
In the elections held in 1933 the right triumphed and in 1936, the left.

1936
Spain was divided into two zones: one under the authority of the Republican government -in which the social revolution of 1936- and other controlled by the insurgents took place.

1936
The Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936.

17 July 1936, 18 July 1936
On 17 July and 18, 1936, revolted against the government of the Republic, the military garrisons of the Spanish North Africa, coup d'état that triumphs only in part country.

1937
The only legal party under Franco's post civil war regime was the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, formed in 1937; the party emphasised falangism, a form of fascism that emphasised anti-communism, nationalism and Roman Catholicism.

Barcelona%2C proclamaci%C3%B3n de la rep%C3%BAblica%2C aspecto de la plaza de San Jaime en la ma%C3%B1ana del 21 de febrero%2C de Pellicer

Reproduced from WIKI

Barcelona%2C proclamaci%C3%B3n de la rep%C3%BAblica%2C aspecto de la plaza de San Jaime en la ma%C3%B1ana del 21 de febrero%2C de Pellicer

1939
In 1939, General Franco emerged victorious and became a dictator.

1940, 1949
Since the 1940s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar.

1949
Given Franco's opposition to competing political parties, the party was renamed the National Movement (Movimiento Nacional) in 1949.

1950, 1986
The much more productive regions devoted to irrigated cultivation (regadío) accounted for 3 million hectares in 1986, and the government hoped that this area would eventually double, as it already had doubled since 1950.

1955
This changed in 1955, during the Cold War period, when it became strategically important for the US to establish a military presence on the Iberian Peninsula as a counter to any possible move by the Soviet Union into the Mediterranean basin.

Semana tragica

Reproduced from WIKI

Semana tragica

1959
The group was formed in 1959 during Franco's rule but has continued to wage its violent campaign even after the restoration of democracy and the return of a large measure of regional autonomy.

1960, 1969
In the 1960s, Spain registered an unprecedented rate of economic growth which was propelled by industrialisation, a mass internal migration from rural areas to Madrid, Barcelona and the Basque Country and the creation of a mass tourism industry.

1960, 1975
Approximately two million Spaniards migrated to other Western European countries between 1960 and 1975.

1960, 1969
The Society's co-founder, Francis Xavier, was a missionary who reached India and later Japan. In the 1960s, Jesuits Pedro Arrupe and Ignacio Ellacuría supported the movement of Liberation Theology.

1962
In 1962, a group of politicians involved in the opposition to Franco's regime inside the country and in the exile met in the congress of the European Movement in Munich, where they made a resolution in favour of democracy.

Arrested workers during the Asturian Revolution%2C 1934

Reproduced from WIKI

Arrested workers during the Asturian Revolution%2C 1934

1964, 2010, 2012
The country's national football team won the UEFA European Football Championship in 1964, 2008 and 2012 and the FIFA World Cup in 2010, and is the first team to ever win three back-to-back major international tournaments.

1970, 1979, 1980, 1989
After the birth rate plunged in the 1980s and Spain's population growth rate dropped, the population again trended upward initially upon the return of many Spaniards who had emigrated to other European countries during the 1970s, and more recently, fuelled by large numbers of immigrants who make up 12% of the population.

1970, 2014
Since 1970 to 2014, Spain has had seven different educational laws (LGE, LOECE, LODE, LOGSE, LOPEG, LOE and LOMCE).

1975
After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in 1975, Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with the West.

November 1975
With Franco's death in November 1975, Juan Carlos succeeded to the position of King of Spain and head of state in accordance with the franquist law.

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H25224%2C Guernica%2C Ruinen

Reproduced from WIKI

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H25224%2C Guernica%2C Ruinen

1976, 1977
Impatient with the slow pace of democratic political reforms in 1976 and 1977, Spain's new King Juan Carlos, known for his formidable personality, dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as Prime Minister.

3 March 1976
The Spanish 1977 Amnesty Law let people of Franco's regime continue inside institutions without consequences, even perpetrators of some crimes during transition to democracy like the Massacre of 3 March 1976 in Vitoria or 1977 Massacre of Atocha.

1977, 1978
The resulting general election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution of 1978.

1978
With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the restoration of democracy, the State devolved much authority to the regions and created an internal organisation based on autonomous communities.

1978
The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy.

Franco eisenhower 1959 <a style="color:blue" href="https://www.lahistoriaconmapas.com/timelines/countries/timeline-chronology-Madrid.html">Madrid</a>

Reproduced from WIKI

Franco eisenhower 1959 madrid

1978
By political custom established by King Juan Carlos since the ratification of the 1978 Constitution, the king's nominees have all been from parties who maintain a plurality of seats in the Congress.

1978
The Spanish Constitution of 1978 "protect all Spaniards and all the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions".

1978
They were created after the current constitution came into effect (in 1978) in recognition of the right to self-government of the "nationalities and regions of Spain".

1978
The Spanish Constitution of 1978, in its second article, recognises several contemporary entities—nationalities— and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation.

6 December 1978
After a national referendum on 6 December 1978, 88% of voters approved of the new constitution.

MITING CNT MONTJU%C3%8FC

Reproduced from WIKI

MITING CNT MONTJU%C3%8FC

1980, 1989
During the 1980s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society.

1980, 1989
Citrus fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, olive oil, and wine—Spain's traditional agricultural products—continued to be important in the 1980s.

1980, 1989
In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve world recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s (La Movida Madrileña).

23 February 1981
On 23 February 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military-backed government.

1982
As a member of NATO since 1982, Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities.

President Bush addresses the Middle East Peace Conference at the Royal Palace in Madrid%2C Spain - NARA - 186439.tif

Reproduced from WIKI

President Bush addresses the Middle East Peace Conference at the Royal Palace in Madrid%2C Spain - NARA - 186439.tif

30 May 1982
On 30 May 1982 Spain joined NATO, followed by a referendum after a strong social opposition.

1983
Meat production for domestic consumption became the single most important agricultural activity, accounting for 30% of all farm-related production in 1983.

1986
In 1986 Spain joined the European Economic Community, which later became the European Union.

17 June 2017, 1990, 1999
Unemployment stood at 17.1% in June 2017, below Spain's early 1990s unemployment rate of at over 20%.

1990, 1999
By the mid-1990s the economy had recommenced the growth that had been disrupted by the global recession of the early 1990s.

Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 %28081%29

Reproduced from WIKI

Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 %28081%29

1990, 1999
Since the 1990s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America.

1992
Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics that were hosted in Barcelona, which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the country.

1996
The PSOE was replaced in government by the Partido Popular (PP) in 1996 after scandals around participation of the government of Felipe González in the Dirty war against ETA; at that point the PSOE had served almost 14 consecutive years in office.

1996
Since 1996, CO2 emissions have risen notably, not reaching the reduction emissions promised in the Kyoto Protocol for fighting climate change.

1996, 2008
The number of immigrants in Spain had grown up from 500,000 people in 1996 to 5.2 million in 2008 out of a total population of 46 million.

Go Spanish revolution - Indignados

Reproduced from WIKI

Go Spanish revolution - Indignados

1999
The centre-right government of former prime minister José María Aznar worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the Euro in 1999.

1999
With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain was admitted into the Eurozone in 1999.

1 January 2002, 2000, 2009
On 1 January 2002, Spain fully adopted the euro, and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early 2000s.

2000, 2009
The proportion of Spain's foreign born population increased rapidly during its economic boom in the early 2000s, but then declined due to the financial crisis.

2000
Since 2000, Spain has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half the replacement level.

Spain topo

Reproduced from WIKI

Spain topo

2002
It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in 2002.

2002, 2007
In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived.

2003
In 2003 José María Aznar supported US president George W.

2004
Because of the proximity of the 2004 election, the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident.

2004, 2011
In 2011, Mariano Rajoy's conservative People's Party won the election with 44.6% of votes, and Rajoy became the Spanish Prime Minister, after having been the leader of the opposition from 2004 to 2011, and continued to implement austerity measures required by the EU Stability and Growth Pact.

Teide 2 Blick auf

Reproduced from WIKI

Teide 2 Blick auf

11 March 2004
On 11 March 2004 a local Islamist terrorist group inspired by Al-Qaeda carried out the largest terrorist attack in Spanish history when they killed 191 people and wounded more than 1,800 others by bombing commuter trains in Madrid.

14 March 2004
The elections on 14 March were won by the PSOE, led by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.

2005
In 2005, Spain instituted a three-month amnesty programme through which certain hitherto undocumented aliens were granted legal residency.

2005
In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people.

2006
In the last five decades, international tourism in Spain has grown to become the second largest in the world in terms of spending, worth approximately 40 billion Euros or about 5% of GDP in 2006.

Circo de Soaso

Reproduced from WIKI

Circo de Soaso

2006
The current education system is regulated by the 2006 educational law, LOE (Ley Orgánica de Educación), or Fundamental Law for the Education.

2007
The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in 2007 aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life.

2007
Spain also positioned itself as a European leader in Solar power, by 2007-2010 the country was second only to Germany in installed capacity.

2008, 2011, 2012, 2016
The bursting of the Spanish property bubble in 2008 led to the 2008–16 Spanish financial crisis and high levels of unemployment, cuts in government spending and corruption in Royal family and People's Party served as a backdrop to the 2011–12 Spanish protests.

2008
In 2008, Spain granted citizenship to 84,170 persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco.

Tossa de Mar View

Reproduced from WIKI

Tossa de Mar View

2008
Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus, but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to 2008.

2008
In 2008, prior to the onset of the economic crisis, the Financial Times reported that Spain was the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering a move from their own country and seeking jobs elsewhere in the EU.

2008
In 2008, the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security.

2009
Fossil fuels together generated 58% of Spain's electricity in 2009, just below the OECD mean of 61%.

2010
Government talks with ETA happened, and the group announced its permanent cease of violence in 2010.

291114B- Tablas Daimiel - El puente - Castilla-La Mancha

Reproduced from WIKI

291114B- Tablas Daimiel - El puente - Castilla-La Mancha

May 2012, 2010
In 2010, the Basque city of Bilbao was awarded with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, and its mayor at the time, Iñaki Azkuna, was awarded the World Mayor Prize in 2012.

2010
In 2010 Spain became the solar power world leader when it overtook the United States with a massive power station plant called La Florida, near Alvarado, Badajoz.

2010
In 2010 its wind turbines generated 42,976 GWh, which accounted for 16.4% of all electrical energy produced in Spain.

2010, 2011
What the programme failed to do, the sharp and prolonged economic crisis has done from 2010 to 2011 in that tens of thousands of immigrants have left the country due to lack of jobs.

9 November 2010
On 9 November 2010, wind energy reached an instantaneous historic peak covering 53% of mainland electricity demand and generating an amount of energy that is equivalent to that of 14 nuclear reactors.

Iberian Wolf AdF 001

Reproduced from WIKI

Iberian Wolf AdF 001

2011
The busiest one is the airport of Madrid (Barajas), with 50 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 15th busiest airport, as well as the European Union's fourth busiest.

2011
The airport of Barcelona (El Prat) is also important, with 35 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 31st-busiest airport.

2011
According to the Spanish government there were 5.7 million foreign residents in Spain in 2011, or 12% of the total population.

2011
According to residence permit data for 2011, more than 860,000 were Romanian, about 770,000 were Moroccan, approximately 390,000 were British, and 360,000 were Ecuadorian.

2011
In 2011 alone, more than half a million people left Spain.

Palacio Real Jardines

Reproduced from WIKI

Palacio Real Jardines

2012
The 'founding chairman' of the current leading political party in Spain, the People's Party, was Manuel Fraga who had been a minister in Franco's government and yet continued with his political career until shortly before his death in 2012.

2012
Vitoria-Gasteiz was awarded with the European Green Capital in 2012 after implementining good practices by the Agenda 21 and recovering Salburua wetland, protected by Ramsar Convention and Natura 2000 and a part of Green Belt of Vitoria-Gasteiz, funded partially with The LIFE Programme.

2012
The Basque capital city of Vitoria-Gasteiz received the European Green Capital Award in 2012.

2012
A study made by the Union of Islamic Communities of Spain demonstrated that there were about 1,700,000 inhabitants of Muslim background living in Spain as of 2012, accounting for 3–4% of the total population of Spain.

2013
Among the countries studied by Pew Research Center in 2013, Spain is rated first in acceptance of homosexuality, with an 88% of society supporting the gay community compared to 11% who do not.

Congreso de los Diputados %28Espa%C3%B1a%29 14

Reproduced from WIKI

Congreso de los Diputados %28Espa%C3%B1a%29 14

2013
Source: "Áreas urbanas +50", Ministry of Public Works and Transport (2013)

5 July 2013
On 5 July 2013, Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views.

2014
Electricity from renewable sources in Spain represented 42.8% of electricity demand coverage during 2014.

2014
Spain aims to put one million electric cars on the road by 2014 as part of the government's plan to save energy and boost energy efficiency.

2014
In 2014, the LOE was partially modified by the newer and controversial LOMCE law (Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa), or Fundamental Law for the Improvement of the Education System, commonly called Ley Wert (Wert Law).

Pedro S%C3%A1nchez y Angela Merkel 05

Reproduced from WIKI

Pedro S%C3%A1nchez y Angela Merkel 05

19 June 2014
On 19 June 2014, the monarch, Juan Carlos, abdicated in favour of his son, who became Felipe VI.

19 June 2014
King Felipe VI, since 19 June 2014

2017
In 2017, Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers.

1 June 2017
On 1 June 2018 the Congress of Deputies passed a motion of no-confidence against Rajoy and replaced him with the PSOE leader Pedro Sanchez, thus bringing socialists back to power after 7 years.

1 October 2017, 27 October 2017
A Catalan independence referendum was held on 1 October 2017 and then, on 27 October, the Catalan parliament voted to unilaterally declare independence from Spain to form a Catalan Republic on the day the Spanish Senate was discussing approving direct rule over Catalonia as called for by the Spanish Prime Minister.

Cumbre del G20 en Los Cabos%2C M%C3%A9xico

Reproduced from WIKI

Cumbre del G20 en Los Cabos%2C M%C3%A9xico

March 2018
The youth unemployment rate (35% in March 2018) is extremely high compared to EU standards.

1 June 2018
Prime Minister of Spain (Presidente del Gobierno, literally President of the Government): Pedro Sánchez Pérez-Castejón, elected 1 June 2018.

2020
Should the aims of the ambitious AVE programme (Spanish high speed trains) be met, by 2020 Spain will have 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of high-speed trains linking almost all provincial cities to Madrid in less than three hours and Barcelona within four hours.